- B.A. Kyoto Univ. 1981
- M.A. Kyoto Univ. 1983
- The husbandry of Mongolian nomads on the process of change to marketing economy
- The history of natural environment in the Echina River Basen
- The activity of NGO (NPO) in Mongolia
- The history of 20th Century in Mongolia
Recent Research Interests:
In 1989, triggered by a process of democratization, Mongolia made the transition to a market economy. Since then, indeed, the economical activities of particularly urban areas have been expanding rapidly. On the other hand, however, the nomadic herdsmen in the countryside have had little chance to integrate their livelihoods in the market economy, which has proven to be the cause of many social problems. For example, drastic migrations from remote areas–where the economic distribution systems have collapsed–to the capital city, cause an increase of street children who live without their parents in underground manholes.
Another example is that herdsmen are now likely to breed bigger number of goats, rather than sheep, because the valuable goat hair brings them more direct cash income. In a sense goat hair has become like a cash ‘crop’, and ‘monoculturization’ of the economy is taking place. Additionally, the eating habit of goats is more harmful which fuels the process of overgrazing, bringing severe damage to the pasture lands.
In Mongolia, the most pressing problem thus is the widening economic disparities between city and countryside. To solve this problem, many countries, such as the USA and Germany, and also international organizations have been giving economic assistance, often through the involvement of NGO’s. However, this economic support in turn causes new economic issues.
As an example, one USAID project provided assistance to only the top 5% herdsmen who could manage their husbandry successfully by themselves, but the rest poor herdsmen were left behind as poor as before. This inevitable caused a disparity in wealth which did not existed under socialism arose and has been getting much wider.
This current period of Mongolia’s economical dependence on financial aid from many countries and international organizations, sometimes even is indicated as an era of neo-colonialism.
Geographical Areas of Interest:
Mongolia, Inner Mongolia
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