The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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Documenting and Sharing Information on Ethnological Materials: Working with Native American Tribes

Research period: June 2014 - March 2018 / Project for Database Establishment (project period: max. 4 years) Coordinator ITO Atsunori

Reserch Theme List

Objectives

The goal of this project is to establish a new theoretical approach to the emerging forum-style studies at ethnological museums, in the discipline of cultural anthropology. To this end, state-of-the-art research methodologies will be applied. Two undertakings are underway:

  1. An international collective research project to discuss documentation of anthropological materials held by the National Museum of Ethnology ("Minpaku") and other museums around the world related to Native North Americans.
  2. Detailed reviews of the materials held by these participating museums are to be conducted by members of the international collaborative research group (the project leader, source communities [the producers and users of the materials], and museum representatives) at the holding museums. If physical visits are not possible, the collection reviews will be done remotely using images of the materials. Examining existing information on the materials classified by academics in comparison to the source communities' contemporary views on corresponding materials reveal the different ways these two groups construct and communicate knowledge (both material information and knowledge of traditions). After completion of the detailed reviews, information to be added or modified will be translated into multiple languages. In addition, images of the materials will be digitized and the review process recorded. Both will be integrated into the new database.
  3. After reviewing issues about the appropriateness of disclosing information, with considerations for both copyright status and cultural sensitivity, the data will be shared online among the museums and source communities via the Info-Forum Museum for Cultural Resources of the World (hereafter termed "Info-Forum Museum"). Further using the Info-Forum Museum's commentary function, which allows the involvement of the general public, the project team will explore a more comprehensive approach to passing on this knowledge. The team’s exploration will also include ways in which the data can be used by the museums in their exhibitions, educational programs, and research, as well as also by the source communities.

Description

Since the 1990s, ethnological museums have been placing increased importance on opportunities to serve as a "forum" for exchanging information and values among three groups of stakeholders: the exhibitors (researchers), the exhibited (source communities), and the viewers (the public). There is also a movement in cultural anthropology to become more collaborative, where researchers and the groups who are studied come together for multilateral exchanges of opinions and interpretations. The movement emerged against the backdrop of post-colonialism and the advancement global information technologies.
Ethnological museums have collected and classified cultural objects, which serve as the basis of anthropological studies. The information then undergoes a process of reproduction through exhibitions and publications. However, detailed cultural information regarding the materials is often scarce, and source communities have pointed out that, from their perspective, information collected by anthropologists is also often incorrect. In the past, the accuracy of information was largely left to the authority of researchers. It is preferable, therefore, to have direct involvement by the source communities in this process, in order to promote a forum style of multilateral knowledge generation.
Therefore, in this project, members of the source communities will be invited to visit the museums to conduct the research. The invitees will be "reconnected" with the materials at the museums, and asked to explain the collection based on their traditional knowledge, and to elaborate on how the artifacts are made and used by different groups (e.g., genders) in different regions. The invitees will also be able to modify the information in the current museum database not only to correct errors but also to re-establish the cultural context of the material. This process will be documented. In other words, the objective of the project is to perform collaborative documentation of cultural anthropological material by the communities that produced them and the museums that now showcase them. In this way, by leveraging the memories of the source communities, the project team can restore the cultural vitality now lying dormant in the "things" which, because of the scarcity of information regarding them, are shelved in storage. The team also believes that working toward appropriate disclosure, through such activities as clearance of copyright status and consideration of cultural sensitivity, will expand the opportunities for use of the materials at Minpaku and other holding museums around the world. It will also promote their secondary uses and result in meaningful contributions to society.
What needs to be achieved first is to launch an international joint research project to establish documentation methodologies and practical procedures for handling anthropological materials. Throughout the project, the team should perform collection review collaboratively with researchers of museum anthropology, cultural anthropologist, Native North Americans, museum representatives, and members of the source communities. The partners include the Museum of Northern Arizona, A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, and the National Museum of Scotland.
Second, the team must compare the knowledge presented by source communities with information provided by holding institutes regarding their collections and analyses and interpretations resulting from past studies on the ethnic groups in question. The comparative data regarding these materials can then be reorganized. Also, this review process can be filmed and made into multilingual visual guides. Achieving high-level digitization and multi-modal accessibility for ethnological museums’ information is a matter of urgency, in order for us to keep up with the expected advancement of digital technology and communication infrastructure.
Third, the team will share the reorganized data with holding museums and any source communities in which only some of the members could be involved in the initial collection review, and ask them for feedback to further refine the knowledge base. This whole process of knowledge sharing and improvement will also be documented.
Fourth, the team will incorporate into the database the newly-acquired knowledge, videotaped procedures of detailed reviews, and object movies of the objects (Photo VR), and make them available to the general public after their appropriateness for public disclosure has been verified. The verification process includes obtaining permission from the makers or copyright holders of the materials to put their work online (i.e., for public transmission) and interviewing the makers about correct interpretation of and appropriate production methods for their work. The team will also maintain the database.
Fifth, the team will either install equipment to operate the database in the exhibition hall of each holding museum or put a link to the Info-Forum Museum on their websites. This way, the team can provide accessibility solutions to the source communities and other remote users. Comments made about the materials will be collected on a continual basis.
Sixth, on the last year of the project, anthropological analyses of the above five items will be performed. Based on the results, we will hold an international symposium with the goal of establishing a new research methodology and a new theoretical approach to the sharing and passing on of knowledge in both contemporary and future environments. The outcome of the project will also be published via the research bulletins of the holding institutes.
In addition to compiling our results, we will conduct a review of the whole scheme of this experimental project and the system developed for it, in terms of its position within the Info-Forum Museum, in order to identify challenges and issues. We will also be conducting research on potential partners for the Info-Forum Museum and publicizing our efforts. These potential partners include the British Museum, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin, the Smithsonian Institute (National Museum of the American Indian, National Museum of Natural History), the Leiden Museum Volkenkunde, and the Heard Museum.

Expected results

Note: The results also reveal what kind of database it would be.
Interactive databases for use at Minpaku will be built for Hopi Katsina dolls (composed primarily of the collection held by Minpaku) and Hopi jewelry (composed primarily of the collection owned by the Museum of Northern Arizona). These two databases will then be integrated into the Info-Forum Museum and made available to people outside Minpaku.
Minpaku and the Museum of Northern Arizona have large collections related to Native Americans of the Southwestern United States. However, information regarding the collections is often sparse, and descriptions and classifications are sometimes incorrect from the perspective of the source communities. This project will attempt to redress this situation, and form a network of museums inside and outside Japan to enable sharing of museum-owned information.
"The museum as a forum" is a pivotal concept of exhibitions at Minpaku. The project team will be incorporating the "voices of source communities" not only in exhibitions but also in the management and preservation of information. The team will also discuss ways in which the Info-Forum Museum can be of practical benefit to the educational activities of the source communities in teaching about traditional cultures, and will launch such projects.
Database contents will be reviewed for public disclosure to prevent possible copyright violations or other members of the source communities. This will be part of our effort to put into effect collaboration between holding institutes and source communities, and to support traditional cultures and their passing-on process through the use of museum collections.
The basic data held by participating museums, will be reviewed, corrected, and incorporated into the planned Info-Forum Museum, then will be combined with insights from community members. Results that community members agree to share will be disclosed to the public. In addition, however, the following items will be incorporated as a result of the project:

  • Multi-sense descriptions/explanations of materials by members of the source communities (audio and visual information on video)
  • Object movies allow one to simulate handling, turning the object in three dimensions with a touchpad interface, supporting remote reviewing)
  • Links to other sources, according to classifications and makers
  • Comments by researchers
  • Literature information regarding documents
  • Single-museum search functions and inter-museum cross-search functions
  • Hierarchical access control, using passwords
  • A commentary function (available only to registered users, with guaranteed traceability)
  • Multilingual notations in English, Japanese, and Hopi (some portions are audio recordings)
  • Displays of copyright information regarding secondary use (in line with Creative Commons licenses)
  • The following existing visual materials will also be incorporated: Minpaku Videotheque programs ("Native American Jewelry Today" (program #1706), "Hopi Jewelry: Hopi Culture Expressed on Silver" (program #1705), and other multimedia programs under production, such as "HOPI Social Dance and Flute Music" (Minpaku "Special Lectures and Performances").

Outcomes from 2016

1. The state of the implementation of this year’s research
In this fiscal year also research was conducted almost as planned .The major achievements are as follows:
Dispatch of religious leaders and artists having specialized knowledge to museums in Japan for research on the materials there, presentations of progress at the partner institutions, submission of written reports to peer reviewed journals, research of the materials with photographing, organization of movie data, etc.
The details of these achievements are described below, in chronological order:
In April, three Hopi were dispatched from Arizona, USA, to the Fukuyama City-Matsunaga Hakimono Museum, Hiroshima Prefecture. Its materials were inspected closely for almost two weeks, and 162 items, accounting for about 50% of its collection, were recorded on video.
In May, an open seminar on progress of the project was held at the Little World Museum of Man, in Inuyama City, Aichi Prefecture, the materials of which were scrutinized in November 2015.
After repeated discussions until June with the system development team, we considered a concrete image of the navigation database for the Info-Forum Museum.
For almost 40 days, between June and August, I stayed in the USA to visit the Museum of Northern Arizona, with which the National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) concluded an academic agreement in FY 2014. We organized a panel to report the progress of the project, which attracted an audience of about 80 people.. I also organized the data jointly with the members invited to Japan for scrutiny, thereby promoting the process to release the database. On August 29, Mr. Kelly Hays-Gilpin, Chief Curator of the Museum of Northern Arizona, a partner institution in this project and the counterpart of our academic agreement, and I made a presentation entitled “Decolonizing museum catalogs? Collaborative catalogs and archaeological practice” at the WAC-8 Kyoto 2016 (World Archaeological Congress). Over 1,600 archaeologists from around the world attended the WAC-8.
In September, I went to the USA using funds from the Grants-in-aid for scientific research (reinforcement of the international cooperating research). At the three institutions, the Colorado Historical Society, the Denver Art Museum, and the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, I surveyed the materials and made still photographs of some 110 items of Hopi jewelry. I am planning to conduct detailed research on Hopi Reservations using the photos taken at that time in Colorado (detailed digital research) to upload the data obtained there to the Info-Forum Museum database.
In October, I sent a Hopi from Arizona, USA, to the Fukuyama City Matsunaga Hakimono Museum, Hiroshima Prefecture, for almost two weeks. We scrutinized 162 items, about 50% of its collection, that was not completed in April, and recorded them on video. Together with the Hopi guest, I checked the videos produced through the detailed research in April, in order to both eliminate wordiness and delete culturally sensitivity material. In November, an approximately 940,000 word research report on Hopi Kachina dolls owned by Minpaku was submitted to “Senri Ethnological Reports (SER)” as an outcome of the Info-Forum Museum project. It was accepted for publication, and I am proofreading it now. At the “Museum and Community Development” course headed by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and implemented mainly by Minpaku, I lectured to 12 foreign trainees on the importance of copyrighted works owned by museums of ethnology, by comparing them to cultural sensitivity, focusing on this project.
For the disclosure at Minpaku in March 2017 (FY 2016), I will organize all data, including comments inserted into the videos of 272 Kachina dolls made using the Hopi collection of Minpaku in December.
In January and February, I will visit the Hopi Reservations in Arizona, USA, to continue organizing the data together with those Hopi religious leaders invited so far to Japan for scrutiny work. In addition, toward the final year, I will consider the use of the database to be released, by taking into account its short-term concrete development. I am also planning to summarize the two workshops related to this project held at Minpaku in October 2014 and February 2016, and will submit the the summaries for publication to Minpaku’s “Senri Ethnological Studies (SES)”.
I will release part of the outcome material at Minpaku in March.

2. Overview of the research results (achievements of the research objects)
By the end of November of FY 2016, as the third year, I had made 10 research presentations either at international conferences or as an invited lecturer, conducted thorough research at four institutions in two countries, written five short essays, and published four edited or authored and peer reviewed books (one has been published, another is being proofread, and the other two will be submitted within the fiscal year), while working on international cooperating research under an academic agreement. In addition, I supervised the system design and organized the data since that related to this Info-Forum Museum project will be disclosed at Minpaku.

3. Records disclosing achievements (publications, public symposia, sectional meetings of academic conferences, electronic media, etc.)

Written or Edited Books
Edited by Atsunori ITO (2016) “Re-Collection and Sharing Traditional Knowledge, Memories, Information, and Images: Challenges and the Prospects on Creating Collaborative Catalog”(Senri Ethnological Reports) No.137.
Edited by Atsunori ITO (Reviewed)
Reconnecting Source Communities with Museum Collections 1
Collection Review Reports on the Katsina Dolls Labeled "Hopi" in the National Museum of Ethnology
(Senri Ethnological Reports)

Papers, etc.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Doing Collaborative Anthropology as Host” (Feature: Ontology of Anthropologist) Annual Reports on Social Anthropology 42: 67-90, Social Anthropology Society of Tokyo Metropolitan University, Koubundou Publishers.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Closing,” Edited by Atsunori ITO “Re-Collection and Sharing Traditional Knowledge, Memories, Information, and Images: Challenges and the Prospects on Creating Collaborative Catalog” (Senri Ethnological Reports) 137: 131-132.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Introduction,” Edited by Atsunori ITO “Re-Collection and Sharing Traditional Knowledge, Memories, Information, and Images: Challenges and the Prospects on Creating Collaborative Catalog” (Senri Ethnological Reports) 137: 1-4.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Traditional Craft,” Edited by Juri Abe “62 Chapters to Know Native Americans,” Akashi Shoten, pp. 266-271.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Kachina and Kachina Dolls,” Edited by Juri Abe “62 Chapters to Know Native Americans,” Akashi Shoten, pp. 261-265.
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Snake Dance,” Edited by Juri Abe “62 Chapters to Know Native Americans,” Akashi Shoten, pp. 231-235.

Conference Presentations and Invited Lectures
Atsunori ITO (2016) “Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act” “Anthropological Study on the Establishment of New Relationships between Native Americans and Museums over the Return of Materials (Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research Foundation B, Represented by Koji Deriha)” Hokkai-Gakuen University” (2016.11.22)
Atsunori Ito (2016) “Hopi Collections Review in the US and Japan: Introduction of a Minpaku Info-Forum Museum Project,” Denver Museum of Nature & Science. (2016.9.15)
Atsunori Ito (2016) “Hopi Collections Review in the US and Japan: Introduction of Minpaku’s Info-Forum Museum Project,” History Colorado Center. (2016.9.12)
Kelley Hays-Gilpin and Atsunori Ito (2016) “Decolonizing museum catalogs? Collaborative catalogs and archaeological practice,” WAC8 (8th World Archaeology Congress, Kyoto, Japan, Doshisha University. (2016.8.29)
Gerald Lomaventema and Atsunori Ito (2016) “History of Traditional Overlay Jewelry,” Arizona State Parks Homolovi State Park Event “Suvoyuki Day,” Homolovi State Park. (2016.8.6)
Robert Breunig, Atsunori Ito, Gerald Lomaventema, and Kelley Hays-Gilpin (2016) “History of Hopi Overlay Jewelry: Origins and Continuity,” Museum of Northern Arizona 83rd Hopi Festival, Easton Collections Center. (2016.7.3)
Robert Breunig, Atsunori Ito, Gerald Lomaventema, and Kelley Hays-Gilpin (2016) “History of Hopi Overlay Jewelry: Origins and Continuity,” Museum of Northern Arizona 83rd Hopi Festival, Easton Collections Center. (2016.7.2)
Atsunori Ito (2016) “Culturally Revitalizing Museum Materials - Scrutiny and Research on Museum Materials with the Source Community” “Little World College Master Course 2016, Second Lecture,” The Little World Museum of Man. (2016.5.22)
Atsunori Ito (2016) “How to Pass Recollections and Memories Down the Generations – Scrutiny and Research on Museum Materials with the Source Community” Osaka Prefectural Elderly College “World Culture Course,” Osaka Prefecture Social Welfare Center. (2016.5.20)
Atsunori Ito (2016) “Culture of Hopi, Native American Tribe” Osaka Prefectural University Elderly College “World Culture Course,” Osaka Prefecture Social Welfare Center. (2016.5.13)

Video and Other Works
Supervised by Atsunori Ito and Motoi Suzuki (2016) “National Museum of Ethnology Visual Ethnography Journal Vol. 18 –Native American Jewelry in the Southwest,” National Museum of Ethnology

Mass Media
“Spotlighted Museum Artifacts in Fukuyama – Kachina Dolls of Hopi, Native American Tribe” “The Chugoku Shimbun, Morning Edition, Local News Section p. 27” (2016.4.17)

Outcomes from 2014

1. The state of the implementation of this year’s research
From June to July, 2014 we went to the USA, together with Dr. Ken’ichi Sudo, Director-General of Minpaku, to visit institutions involved in this project. At the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, in Colorado, we made a courtesy call on George Sparks, the President and CEO of the museum. Dr. Chip Colwell and Dr. Steve Nash, both of whom are international cooperating researchers for this project and also curators of anthropology, showed us the museum’s exhibition space and collection storage areas. We discussed with them recent topics in museum anthropology.
It had been decided that Minpaku would make an academic exchange agreement for this project with the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff, Arizona, so a signing ceremony was held at the museum on July 4. On the same day, the 84th Hopi Festival also began at the Museum of Northern Arizona, and both Mr. Sudo, Minpaku Director-General, and this project were introduced to the participants during opening ceremony of the festival.
From July to August, we used the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A), “Source Community Utilization of Ethnological Collections for Information Sharing in Japanese Museums”, Research Project Number: 26704012) to photograph the approximately 280 Hopi wooden dolls owned by Minpaku. The images were then processed as digitalized materials for photoVR.
From October 5 to 17, we used photoVR to review the collections in the Minpaku storage area. Following that we invited the specialists from Japan and overseas (partly using funds   from Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research). These specialists were four international research partners from the source community (Ramson Lomatewama, Darance Chimerica, Merle Namoki, Gerald Lomaventema), six cooperating researchers from overseas (Robert Breunig of the Museum of Northern Arizona, Kelley Hays-Gilpin of Northern Arizona University, Chip Colwel of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Jim Enote of the A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center (AAMHC), Cynthia Chavez-Lamar of the National Museum of the American Indian, and Henrietta Lidchi of the National Museum of Scotland). Personnel from museums in Japan that possess Hopi wooden dolls, include Tenri University Sankokan Museum and the Little World Museum of Man. Audio and video data recorded during the work of reviewing the collection, which lasted for 10 days, was transcribed into both Japanese and English. It was checked by each speaker, and then translated into Japanese.
From the late-October to early-November, we organized a symposium entitled “Who owns traditional culture? Considering Collaborative works for cultural resources.” This was held in conjunction with a special exhibition (with the same name as the symposium) held by the Tokyo Metropolitan University, a research organization that studies the communication of academic achievements to the people of Tokyo, and the formation of organizations. At the symposium, we considered and confirmed a variety of topics, such as the arrangement of collections pertaining to the Info-Forum Museum and the potential for information disclosure and sharing by other than online methods.
In November, Atsunori Ito, the project director of this project, again visited the Museum of Northern Arizona to photograph and measure their collection of Hopi jewelry (about 380 of a total of some 450 items) for both to confirm and supplement existing records. Concurrently, a check was made of the translated English transcripts of the verbal explanations recorded during the collection review done at Minpaku.
We plan to review the collections at the Little World Museum of Man in 2015. To discuss the arrangements for this, we attended a meeting at the museum in January. We also inspected their storage areas, indoor and outdoor exhibition areas, using Minpaku’s Inter-University Research Project (A Study of Relationship-building Using Ethnological Materials). Ito serves as the representative of the Inter-University Research Project.
Regarding the Yaqui source community, we worked with Yuka Mizutani, of Sophia University, and a cooperating researcher in Japan, to survey about 50 collections owned by Minpaku. The collections were photographed by Yuka Mizutani, and the photographs sent to the contact person at the Yaqui Government. We collected feedback from the Yaqui to verify that the collections were appropriate for display. Suggestions for the management of some of the items were made by the source community, and, in accordance with these suggestions, we instructed the Minpaku Information Planning Section of the Office of Information and Documentation to manage them appropriately. The section has already done as instructed.
We planned to send Nobuhiro  Kishigami, a cooperating researcher in Japan, to the UBC Museum of Anthropology (reciprocal research network), the Arctic Studies Center (sharing knowledge), and to other institutions that operate databases based on inter-museum networks, and which are similar to the Minpaku Info-Forum Museum concept. Although some of the budget for survey expenses was earmarked, based on the proposal documents from the preparatory surveys for the formation of problem resolution research projects of the National Institutes for the Humanities, the budget was used to send the researcher to the above institutions from January to February.
To present an interim report on the current status of this project for the same purpose, in June Atsunori Ito attended a workshop of the Japanese Association for American Studies, held in Okinawa, and the American Indian Workshop (an academic conference held in March concerning Native North Americans) held in Frankfurt, Germany to make oral presentations. While in Europe, Ito inspected the Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics) and the National Museum of Ethnology in the Netherlands and publicized the Info-Forum Museum project. Using the same budget for survey expenses, based on the proposal documents of the National Institutes for the Humanities, in March he visited also the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, to discuss with Professor Robin Boast, a specialist in Information Science, on the establishment of the Info-Forum Museum system.

2. Overview of the research results (achievements of the research objects)
Items made by Native American Hopi are housed in Minpaku and other museums in Japan and overseas. To create a digital archive of these collected items, we selected the methods, approaches to documentation, and target people to whom the collections were to be shown. We examined the significance of the unveiling of the archives for both the museums and source communities, and collected and managed the relevant items. These activities accounted for most of our research projects during the first year.
Activities implemented this year that are expected to have the greatest impact on the future development of our research projects were photographing collections for photoVR (virtual reality), inviting the source communities, and reviewing the collections. When Minpaku and other museums invite members of source communities, it is essential to care for them properly, particularly regarding their employment and everyday life, health, transportation, and other physical items during their time on site. We have overcome major challenges to create opportunities for virtually reviewing the collections on-site without transferring personnel while taking into account the limited budgets of those inviting the members of the source communities.
To some extent, the photoVR helps overcome such challenges. Using a rotating table on which an item is placed, 36 photographs of it are taken at angles of 0° (horizontal), 30°, 60°, and 90°. One photograph is taken of the bottom of an item. The resultant total of 145 images is eventually integrated into a data file. The photoVR thus permits the making of files of collected items that can be rotated as if being held in the hand. Moreover, it creates a virtual environment that allows enlargement or reduction the high-resolution images for the detailed and close-up examination of an item. However, the photoVR cannot reproduce all physical senses, like smell, touch, or a feeling of weight. Nevertheless, the operational performance of the system is much superior to a simple photograph. Using the photoVR, done using the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, greatly facilitated the reviewing of collections and then sending explanatory information giving to related institutions. In that way the adoption of the photoVR was a major advance in the development of future projects.
Minpaku owns approximately 280 wooden dolls of Katsina, the supernatural being that represents ancestral spirits, souls, rain, and rain clouds. The source communities reviewed them, during seven weekdays between October 5 and 17. Two doll carvers and two users (religious leaders) were in charge of the review All four persons differed in age and village of residence, and none had previous experience reviewing a museum collection. Therefore, Executive Director Jim Enote, of AAMHC, and Dr. Cynthia Chavez-Lamar, of the National Museum of the American Indian, who had previously reviewed the Minpaku collections, gave the Katsina dolls reviewers a demonstration of how to review and record collected items. AAMHC made academic exchange agreements with Minpaku in 2012. Although Jim Enote and Dr. Cynthia Chavez-Lamar are also Native Americans, the reviewers of the collection of Hopi Katsina dolls were given instructions by both Native Americans and by non-Native American professionals from museums. They had to determine carefully which collected items should be shown, and to what extent they should be shown. All participants made statements in the Hopi language regarding each item being reviewed and then each explained the Katsina’s role in their village. To summarize their opinions, video images were taken against a black background so that each reviewer could concentrate on making his speech. This collection reviewing was video recorded and provided hundreds of hours of invaluable primary source materials. All audio data were transcribed, and, after checking the speakers’ English, were translated into Japanese. These data will constitute the main content of the database of the Info-Forum Museum.
In addition, the collections at the Museum of Northern Arizona were surveyed and photographed. Also, oral presentations at institutions, academic workshops, symposiums, and exhibitions in Japan and overseas were made to publicize the project.
The data for 36,380 recorded items among those recorded in the Minpaku collection catalog were confirmed and supplemented. Details of the items are as follows. For the collection of Hopi wooden dolls owned by Minpaku, 145 still images per item were taken and processed into a single photoVR for each item. About 140 collected items during the dedicated period between October 5 and 17 were reviewed to confirm and supplement at least nine records per item (a subtotal of approximately 21,560 records). For the collection of Hopi jewelry owned by the Museum of Northern Arizona, about 380 items were photographed (about 10 photos per item). A total of 39 records were also confirmed and supplemented regarding size and design (a subtotal of 14,820 records).

3. Records disclosing achievements (publications, public symposia, sectional meetings of academic conferences, electronic media, etc.)

Academic articles
Atsunori Ito 2015 “A Redefinition of the Significance of the Minpaku ‘Special Lectures and Performances‘: A Case Study of " HOPI Social Dance and Flute Music‘ “Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology Vol. 39, No. 3: 397-458. (In Japanese)

Essays
Atsunori Ito 2014 “For the Development of Native American Studies in Japan” Minpaku Tsushin No. 145: 20-21, National Museum of Ethnology. (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Re-Collection and Sharing Traditional Knowledge, Memories, Information, and Images: Problem and the Prospects on Creating Collaborative Catalog." MINPAKU Anthropology Newsletter No. 38: 11-12, National Museum of Ethnology.

Public symposia, workshops
Symposium entitled “Who owns traditional culture? Collaboration for cultural resources” held by the Tokyo Metropolitan University research organization that performs research on the communication of academic achievements to the people of Tokyo and the formation of organizations, Tokyo Metropolitan University, (November 1, 2014)(In Japanese)
Minpaku International Workshop Collection Review: Methodology and Effective Utilization for the Museum and the Source Community, National Museum of Ethnology (2014.10.5~10.10)

Verbal presentations
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Real and Fake: Case Study of the Hopi Jewelry” (Symposium titled “Who owns traditional culture? Collaboration for cultural resources” held by the Tokyo Metropolitan University research organization that performs research on the communication of academic achievements to the people of Tokyo and the formation of organizations, Tokyo Metropolitan University (November 1, 2014)(In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Introduction of "Kachina doll" collection labeled Hopi in Minpaku", Minpaku International Workshop Collection Review: Methodology and Effective Utilization for the Museum and the Source Community, National Museum of Ethnology (2014.10.6)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Tasks of collection, accumulation, documentation, and effective utilization of SC’s comments", Minpaku International Workshop Collection Review: Methodology and Effective Utilization for the Museum and the Source Community, National Museum of Ethnology (2014.10.5)
Robert Breunig, Kelley Hays-Gilpin, Atsunori Ito 2014 "Reconnect Museum and Source Community", Minpaku International Workshop Collection Review: Methodology and Effective Utilization for the Museum and the Source Community, National Museum of Ethnology (2014.10.5)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Introduction", Minpaku International Workshop Collection Review: Methodology and Effective Utilization for the Museum and the Source Community, National Museum of Ethnology (2014.10.5)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Collection Review for Source Communities and Holding Museums” the 260th Minpaku Research Seminar Series, National Museum of Ethnology. (September 24, 2014)(In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Report on the locations of collections concerning Native American people, the current status of their management information, and the concept of the Info-Forum Museum of the National Museum of Ethnology,” the 48th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for American Studies, sectional meetings concerning Native Americans, Okinawa Convention Center. (June 8, 2014)(In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Collaborating with the Source Community", IUAES panel Re-imagining ethnological museums: new approaches to developing the museum as a place of multi-lateral contacts and knowledge (Commission on Museums and Cultural Heritage), Makuhari Messe. (2014.5.15)
Atsunori Ito 2014 "Intellectual Property: Consideration on "Copyrighted Works" to be Uniquely Given by Ethnological Museums", JICA Museology Course, National Museum of Ethnology.(2014.5.7)

Exhibition activities
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Real and Fake: Case Study of the Hopi Jewelry” (special exhibition entitled “Who owns traditional culture? Collaboration for cultural resources” held by the Tokyo Metropolitan University research organization that performs research on the communication of academic achievements to the people of Tokyo and the formation of organizations), the 1991 Hall of Tokyo Metropolitan University. (From October 31 to November 13, 2014)

Encyclopedia Items written
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Rights for Representations” in the World Ethnological Encyclopedia edited by the National Museum of Ethnology and published by Maruzen Co. Ltd; pp. 736-737.(July 10, 2014) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Museums and Repatriation” in the World Ethnological Encyclopedia edited by the National Museum of Ethnology and published by Maruzen Co, Ltd; pp.518-519. (July 10, 2014)(In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Handicrafts” in the World Ethnological Encyclopedia edited by the National Museum of Ethnology and published by Maruzen Co, Ltd; pp.496-497.(July 10, 2014) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Native North Americans” in the World Ethnological Encyclopedia edited by the National Museum of Ethnology and published by Maruzen Co, Ltd; pp.296-297.(July 10, 2014) (In Japanese)

Newspaper
Atsunori Ito 2015 “Taking care of the Tradition (Minpaku’s World Travel: Native American Hopi IV)”Mainichi Elementary School Newspaper (January 31, 2015) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2015 “Hopi People with High Physical Abilities (Minpaku’s World Travel: Native American Hopi III)”Mainichi Elementary School Newspaper (January 24, 2015) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2015 “Social Dancing for Prayers (Minpaku’s World Travel: Native American Hopi II)”Mainichi Elementary School Newspaper (January 17, 2015) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2015 “Praying for Rain Cloud (Minpaku’s World Travel: Native American Hopi I)” Mainichi Elementary School Newspaper (January 10, 2015) (In Japanese)
Atsunori Ito 2014 “Masks of the Spirits (VII): Living Creatures” Evening Edition of the Mainichi Newspapers (Traveling, Various People of the Earth) (July 17, 2014) (In Japanese)

Featured by media
Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Kansai Area Edition) 2014 “Towards the Sharing of Ethnological Collections: Minpaku made a great change in its 40th anniversary year”
http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASIH21H02_R21C14A0AA1P00/)(2014.10.26)(In Japanese)
"International collaboration helps connect Museum of Northern Arizona to Hopi community", Navajo-Hopi Observer 34(50), p. 1, 4.(2014.12.10)
2014 “International Workshops held by Minpaku: Towards the Realization of ‘Info-Forum Museum’” BUNKYO SOKUHO (flash report) No. 7973: 15, Kancho Tsushinsya. (February 26, 2014)(In Japanese)

Others (electronic medium etc.)
“Documentation on the Academic Exchange Agreements and Collaborative Relationship  between the National Museum of Ethnology (Osaka, Japan) and the Museum of Northern Arizona (Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.)”(http://www.minpaku.ac.jp/research/activity/exchange/agreement/northernarizona_2014
“Museum of Northern Arizona, Japan’s National Museum of Ethnology Lead Global Initiative”(http://musnaz.org/press-releases/museum-northern-arizona-japans-national-museum-ethnology-lead-global-initiative/