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Shimizu, Akitoshi
Malinowski Rising out of Oblivion: The Culture-
Contact Studies of the 1930s
Nakagawa, Satoshi
The Endenese Bifocal Lenses
Nishi, Yoshio
Old Burmese: Toward the History of Burmese

Malinowski Rising out of Oblivion:
The Culture - Contact Studies of the 1930s
Akitoshi Shimizu

Malinowski is one of the most distinguished figures in the history of anthropology, who introduced the empirical method of ‘participant observation ’. By contrast, he has been considered feeble in theoretical influence, in which he could not eventually rival Radcliffe-Brown. This representation, which depicts the two founding fathers of British social anthropology in complementary terms, has been broadly accepted by anthropologists. However it is neither fair nor correct ; it entirely neglects Malinowski’s most important project in his last decade in Britain. In this paper, I will investigate this project on the practical anthropology of culture contact in African colonies and try to resurrect this so-far unknown Malinowski from entire oblivion.
Through the project he endeavoured to transform anthropology from antiquarianism to a rigorous, empirical science which should be able to provide colonial administration with practical knowledge on the dynamically changing cultural situation of the colonies. Although the project was notorious as a worst case of complicity with imperialism and colonialism, it is also true that no anthropologist among his contemporaries criticized colonial administration so severely as he did. I will reconstruct Malinowski’s ideas on what and how anthropologists should observe concerning culture contact in African colonies, by way of analys-ing the arguments he presented to his own students who participated in the African project. It will be revealed that he foresaw and overcame in many respects the post-modern criticisms of anthropology conducted in the1980s. The Radcliffe-Brownian structural functionalism, when seen in the new light of Malinowski’s project of culture-contact studies, was actually a retreat to an obsolete antiquarianism. However, structural functionalists constructed the history of anthropology as that of a steady development up to their school, by systematically erasing the memory of Malinowski’s projec. The rise and fall of Malinowski’s influence in the late inter-war and the early post-war periods will be traced.
Key Words: Malinowski, culture contact, colonial administration, practical anthropology, critique of colonialism

The Endenese Bifocal Lenses
Satoshi Nakagawa

In a region around Ende of Flores, eastern Indonesia, many young People nowadays go to Malaysia for wage labour,staying there for a short time, ranging from half a year to several years -a trend which is said to have begun in the mid 1980s. this article aims to analyze the impact of those new experiences ( or a new ideology acquired via these experiences ) upon what can be called the system of Endenese “ traditional ” discourse, with a special reference to another “ new ” ideology introduced by modernization, especially through the Indonesian education system.
The latter, that is the newly introduced “modern ”ideology has its own position in the Endenese universe of discourse, standing along with the traditional system of discourse, in the followingWay : one can switch from one system of knowledge to another freely during the course of everyday conversation without causing any trouble to the flow of conver-sation. Educated people ( “ ana sekola” ) talk much about knowledge acquired through their education.
In contrast to those educated people, those who have been abroad seldom talk about the knowledge acquired, supposedly, in their experience abroad. Instead, their experience is integrated into, or rather, objectified in, the traditional system of discourse as a “modern world”,a niche in the ideology comparable to the place occupied by the category ‘non-kin, in Endenese kinship “talk”.This phenomenon can be compared to the way in which traditional society, say Endenese society, is in-tegrated into the “ government talk ”,occupying a niche for “ traditional society ”, or “daerah terkebelakang” ( in the modern world ) for the latter case, one can, in an equal theoretical stance, talk of “invention of modernity” in the traditional world.
Key Words: migrant labourer, language system, tradition, modernity, education

Old Burmese:
Toward the History of Burmese**
Yoshio Nishi*

This paper aims to examine the various interpretations of the phonological system of Old Burmese ( of Burma, now Myanmar ) so far made and propose a conceivable framework of the history of Burmese in the light of our recent knowledge of Burmish languages and the regional dialects of Burmese, as well as orthographic variations in, and orthographic changes since, Old Burmese, from the standpoint that Present-day Standard Burmese is a later changed form of Old Burmese.
* Kobe City University of Foreign Studies
** The present paper was originally written as a chapter of my lectures on Burmese and Proto-Burmish, delivered at the Central University for Nationalities, Beijing, China, from April to July, 1998. As I did not have all my data and OB materials at hand, what is written here is based on ( Luce 1981 ) and my papers ( 1974 ; 1975b ; 1976 ). Since no inscriptional data were available, I used MTA forms for MWB. The glosses attached to examples above are mostly taken from ( Luce1981 ) .
Key Words: Burmese ( Myanmar ) , phonological history, Old Burmese, Written Burmese