The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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Tachikawa, Musashi
Materials for Iconographic Studies of Newar Dharmadhatu Mandalas
Tanaka, J.
Koyama, S.

The Eighth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies (CHAGS 8)

Kayano, Shigeru
Ainu and the Salmon
Lee, Richard
Hunter-Gatherer Studies and the Millennium: A Look Forward (And Back)
Peterson, Nicolas
Hunter-Gatherers in First World Nation States: Bringing Anthropology Home
Feit, Harvey A.
Analyzing and Celebrating Survival in a Globalizing World: Hunters, Others and Us

Materials for Iconographic Studies of
Newar Dharmadhatu Mandalas
Musashi Tachikawa

The present paper is intended to furnish materials for iconographic studies of the Newar Buddhist mandalas found in the Kathmandu Valley. A large number of mandalas depicted on copper or stone plates are installed at various places, such as the court yard of a Newar Buddhist temple, or at a crossroads in a town.
The Newar people inherited Mahayana Buddhism together with its iconographic tradition from India, before Indian Mahayana Buddhism disappeared in the thirteenth century A.D.. The varieties of Newar Buddhist mandalas found in the Kathmandu Valley are almost identical to those of the Indian Buddhist mandalas explained in texts, such as the Nispannayogāvalī or the Vajrāvalĩ. Even today Newar painters con-tinue drawing mandalas according to their tradition, which is very similar to the Indian one.
The Dharmadhātuvāgīśvara Mañjuśrī Mandala is one of the most well-known manadalas in the Kathmandu Valley. In this paper we will consider the Dharmadhātuvāgīśvara ( or Dharmadhātu ) mandalas of three Newar Buddhist temples in Patan City, namely, the Haka Bahal, the Na Bahal, and the Bu Bahal. The images of the deities depicted on these three mandalas are iconographically in accordance with the description given in the Dharmadhātu Chapter of the Nispannayogāvalī ,with some exceptions.
Key Words:Newar Buddhism, Kathmandu, mandala, Dharmadhatu Mandala, Manjushri

The Eighth International Conference on Hunting
and Gathering Societies (CHAGS 8) (in English)
P.J. Matthews, J. Tanaka and S. Koyama

Ainu and the Salmon
Shigeru Kayano*

For some100years, the Ainu have been banned from catching any significant number of salmon in Hokkaido, although the fish is one of their staple foods. Currently, about 50 million of the same fish are caught each year by Japanese fishermen in the waters of Hokkaido. The Ainu at Noboribetsu are legally allowed to take only 5fish, and those at Sapporo only 20 fish, per year. The Ainu people have formed a social movement to ask theJapanese government for recognition of theiri ndigenous right to fish for salmon.
* Kayano Museum of Ainu Culture
Key Words:Ainu, salmon, indigenous rights, Japanese government, staple food

Hunter-Gatherer Studies and the Millennium:
A Look Forward (And Back)**
Richard Lee*

Like the subjects of its study, the field of hunter-gatherers has shown a remarkable capacity for survival. Making two thousand years on the Christian calender may have no necessary resonance with the calendrical systems of the Evenki, the Nayaka, the Arrente, or the Cree.
Nevertheless as hunter-gatherers ( along with everybody else ) are absorbed into “global”culture, it is approprite that we take stock of foragers’ present condition and future prospects, and at the same time assess the successes and failures of the scholarly field that has developed around them. It is remarkable that in spite of economic globalization, bureaucratic domination, and assaults on the cultural integrity of the world’s “ small peoples”something of value has persisted. Against all odds, these societies have maintained some portion of their life-worlds outside of the capitalist world system, showing that even in this hard-bitten age of globalization other ways of being are possible.
Simultaneously, indigenous peoples have emerged as actors on local, regional, and international, political stages. The challenge of the new millennium for hunter-gatherer scholars is therefore three-fold : to appreciate how hunter-gatherers operate in the world and yet apart from it ; to respect the sheer diversity of contemporary hunter-gatherer lifeways and adaptations, and finally to acknowledge that sound scholarship must be combined with ethical and political responsibility to the people whose lives we chromicle.

*University of Toronto
**Paper presented as a keynote address, at the Eighth Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, October 26, 1998. The author wishes to thank Richard Daly, Laura Rival,Robert Hitchcock and Kirk Endicott for considerable input into this paper. This paper is drawn largely from the Introduction to the‘Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers’edited by Richard Lee and Richard Daly (1999 ) .
Key Words:hunter-gatherer studies, fourth world, CHAGS8, the Millennium, indigenou srights, history of anthropology

Hunter-Gatherers in First World Nation States:
Bringing Anthropology Home
Nicolas Peterson*

Anthropologists working at home were, for a long time, considered the poor cousins of their peers working abroad. Somehow they were perceived to have failed the test of travelling out of the comfort zone of their own society and grappling with a radically different other where the real theoretical and ethnographic contributions to anthropology were to be made. Anthropology at home was seen as an anthropology of social issues, drawing anthropologists uncomfortably close to sociology, policy oriented studies and applied research and away from the possibility of theoretically significant contributions. Times have changed, however, as has the discipline. I shall argue that research with fourth world peoples is a distinctive, if limited, field of study which is likely to persist for a considerable time yet and that it is fertile ground for social theory. I will outline what I see as some of the theoretical issues central to this field in the coming decades.

* Australian National University
Key Words:hunter-gatherer studies, autonomy of culture, fourth world , social reproduction, Australia, anthropology at home, welfare colonialism

Analyzing and Celebrating Survival in a Globalizing World:
Hunters, Others and Us
Harvey A. Feit*

The intellectual excitement, the maturity, and the scholarly and public importance of hunter-gatherer studies were apparent throughout the conference. Highlights of the conference were hearing from Ainu People about their urgent situation, and also listening to the important contributions of third world scholars. An emerging theme of the conference was the active survival of these societies and of diverse cultural traditions in a globalizing world. I suggest that these contemporaneous experiences of challenges and renewals unite the lives of scholars and of the peoples of the societies with which they work. In conclusion, I offer thanks, for all the conference participants, to the Japanese hosts for their truly extraordinary efforts and success at making CHAGS 8 so intellectually stimulating, and culturally and personally enriching.

* McMaster Universlty
Key Words:hunters and gatherers, cultural survival, globalization, Minpaku, Ainu