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Shimmen, Mitsuhiro
Nationalism and Christianity under the Socialist State Romania
Kazama, Kazuhiro
Diversification of Mwaneaba: The Local Meeting Houses in Tabiteuea South, Kiribati
Deng, Xiao Hua
A Comparison of the Language and Culture among Min, Hakka and She Ethnics in Fujian
Goto, Yoshiko
Store Food: A Case Study of the Food Supply in an Aboriginal Community from 1988-1995

Nationalism and Christianity under the Socialist State Romania
Mitsuhiro Shimmen

People in the West were surprised when they recognized, after the collapse of communist regimes, the fact that nationalism and Christianity, intermingling with each other, had had a strong influence on East European societies. But in fact nationalism had been strong even under socialist societies. Romania is not exceptional. Under the communist regime, the state ideology tended to emphasize the national representation and its discourse. Although Marxism-Leninism insisted on atheism, Christianity could coexist with it in Romania as long as it was supportive. This means that both socialism and Christianity empha-sized the ethnic consciousness in Romanian society. As a result, contradictory ideologies, such as Christianity and socialism actually supported each other through nationalism.
In this paper, I explain how such contradictory ideologies could have coexisted in Romanian society by focusing on the communist party’s manipulation of national representations and its effects in economic and political crisis. The clergy and intellectuals were utilized for legitimizing socialist ideology and they were not so resistant. The reason the communist party carried out this manipulation was that nationalism and Christianity had been so influential in Romanian society. Although at the beginning of the communist regime, the communist party, obeying Stalinism, suppressed national ideas, it chose an independent policy from the USSR after de-Stalinization and decided to revive nationalism as an alternative ideology for rule. The Church was useful for the same purpose, too. While the communist party tried to put the clergy and intellectuals under its control, they did not just acquiesce but reacted strategically to this. The clergy tried to strengthen their power by positioning Christianity at the center of the nationaltradition. The intellectuals opposed the hegemony of the communist party by leading nationalistic discourse. On the other hand, the masses also reacted strategically according to their needs. Their survival strategy in everyday life weakened the rule of the centralized government. Besides, the oil shock prevented the economic plan from achieving its goals. The economic crisis deprived the socialist ideology of the credibility of the people. The communist party became more dependent on the national ideology for integrating people into the socialist state.
Key Words: socialism, nationalism, Christianity, national representation

Diversification of Mwaneaba:
The Local Meeting Houses in Tabiteuea South, Kiribati
Kazuhiro Kazama

This paper discusses the politico-economic relationship between central institutions in the capital and the local society of Tabiteuea South in Kiribati in the Central Pacific through the medium of meeting houses, called mwaneaba. It is based on the author’s field research conducted there from 1994 to 1996.
Grimble and Maude, Who were colonial administrators and anthropologists, reconstituted what was considered to be the traditional mwaneaba in the early twentieth century. The mwaneaba system has been historically diversified and their description cannot be applied to present circumstances. I observed several types of mwaneaba in Tabiteuea South. Each is accompanied by a particular social group, such as the administrative village, a church organization, the Island Council or a public primary school. Various meetings and feasts are held in mwaneaba, consolidating the members of each social group.
All meetings at mwaneaba are controlled by elders. The mwaneaba effectively blocks the authority of the central government. All economic opportunities offered by external agencies are accepted and discussed by the mwaneaba meetings, and distributed among people according to the local morality of equality. The mwaneaba functions as an apparatus to transform the logic of the outside world.
Key Words: American anthropology, textbook analysis, change and continuity, postmodernism, evolutionism

A Comparison of the Language and Culture among Min,
Hakka and She Ethnics in Fujian
Xiao Hua Deng

While studying the linguistic division of Southern dialects, found That the division of modern Fujian dialects amazingly agrees, with that of prehistoric culture. This led to my doubting of the traditional historical view that the Han Society in Fujian is the result of the immigration of Han people from North China (Central Plains) since the Sixth Dynasty. To me, the traditional evolution theory cannot explain the cultural diversity and Variation of Fujian culture. I believe that the interaction between different ethnic groups and the regional culture tradition is the key element in the formation of the cultural features of Han Society in Fujian.The Han ethnic group in Southern Fujian was greatly influenced by the Austronesian Culture, while the Hakka culture was the result of the interaction between Han immigrants from North China and the native She ethnics. The heterogeneity of Min and Hakka ethnic groups was the Result of the “localization” of the Han culture which was the mainstream.
Key Words: Min and Hakka ethnic group, She ethnic, interaction, Austronesian localization, localization

Store Food:
A Case Study of the Food Supply in an
Aboriginal Community from 1988-1995
Yoshiko Goto*

The overall aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of Dietary patterns in Maningrida over the period 1988 to 1995, based on food supply records from the Maningrida store. I used the ÔstoreturnoverÕ method to achieve this aim. I estimated the food supply per capita in Maningrida from 1988 to 1995 using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census data.
Maningrida store-food ordering data (not including fruit and Vegetables) covered the period 1988 to 1995. The frequency of orders And the variety of items tended to increase during this period. I clas-sified food into the following 12 groups: beverages; canned food; dairy products; eggs; frozen food; grain products; convenience food; meat; oils and fats; seasoning; sugars; and other foods. I also examined changes in the annual Maningrida store-food orders over this period.
Fruit and vegetable data covered the period from 1993 to 1995. Fruit and vegetables were delivered by barge and by air, and the frequency of orders increased over this three-year-period. However, the supply of fruit decreased slightly, and the supply of vegetables increased over this period. I examined the pattern of Maningrida store food orders per capita Per day from 1988 to 1995. Maningrida store orders over this period, when compared to the apparent per capita consumption in Australia (1995-1996), suggest that the supply of sugar, powdered milk and tea was much higher, and the supply of fish, fruit and vegetables much lower in Maningrida than in the wider Australian population.
I examined Maningrida store tobacco orders over the period 1988 to 1995. The per capita orders of cigarettes and loose tobacco appear to have declined over this period.
I make the followlng recommendations for the store manager.
There should be:
(1) an increase in the variety of food available;
(2) an increase in the supply of fruit and vegetables; and
(3) a reduction in the supply of sugar products.
I make the following recommendations for customers of the store.
Customers should:
(1) eat a greater variety of food;
(2) reduce consumption of sugar products;
(3) consume plenty of water;
(4) eat more fruit and vegetables; and
(5) eat more bush food, and grow vegetables if possible.

* Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University
Key Words: Australia, census, Aboriginal people, indigenous people