The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 24 No. 3 1999

Sakiyama, Osamu
Nominals of Fatamanue, Seram Maluku: A Subgrouping Argument in Central Malayo-Polynesian
467
Yang, Haiying
485
Miki, Yoshihiro
Audience Research in Museums in the U.S.
633


Nominals of Fatamanue, Seram Maluku:
A Subgrouping Argument in Central Malayo-Polynesian
Osamu Sakiyama*

The dialect spoken in Utsunomiya city and its surrounding area in Tochigi prefecture, Japan, has a form which denotes so-called &lsquo spon-taneity&rsquo. In many languages &lsquo spontaneous forms &rsquo tend to change to passive forms or potential expressions. In this sense &lsquo spontaneous form &rsquo offers very interesting issues in terms of general linguistics.
The purpose of this paper is to classify the usages of the verb suffix -(r) asar-, which is said to denote &lsquo spontaneity &rsquo, into three, namely guuhatsukooi yoohoo (accidental action usage), shizenhassei yoohoo (spontaneous occurrence usage) and kanoo yoohoo (potentiality usage),and to describe the semantic and morph syntactic characteristics of these usages.
The three usages show various semantic and morphosyntactic differences. For instance, the past form of kanoo yoohoo, which denotes potentiality, does not always imply the occurrence of an event, but that of the other usages always does; in kanoo yoohoo, subject nouns can be marked with -ni (so-called dative case particle), but in the other usages they can never be so marked; when a transitive verb is used in shizenhassei yoohoo, which denotes spontaneous events, it can be considered to change to an intransitive verb taking its undergoer argu-ment as its subject, but no such phenomenon is found in the other usages.
With such semantic and morphosyntactic differences, it is clear that these usages cannot be treated uniformly. The same might be true of the &lsquo spontaneous forms&rsquo of other dialects, so researchers treating similar phenomena should not neglect this point.
* Department of Cultural Research, National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words: spontaneous form, potentiality, voice, Tochigi dialect, Utsunomiya dialect


Haiying Yang

A Mongolian epic ( Two Great Steeds of ) has been preserved for centuries in the form both of manuscript and oral tradition, mainly in Ordus, which is an autonomous region in Inner Mongolia. There exist many different manuscripts for this epic, which have been collected and reported by researchers through generations. The entire corpus of manuscripts, however, has not yet been identified or elucidated. On the other hand, the oral tradition has taken the form of &ldquo Urtu-yin ” the title of which is ( Two Great Steeds of the Holy ). “ Urtu-yin ” literally means a “ long song &rdquo . This paper is aimed at publicising two manuscripts, which the author discovered in Ordus, as well as a text that has existed in the Mongolian People’s Republic for many years.
Conventionally, the study of the epic has centred round the analysis of the stories that are described in it. For this reason, there has not been suffcient academic work to date that aims to compare the written epic with the “ long song ”, which is the oral tradition. In this paper, in order to shed light from a new angle, the author aims to identify various forms of the “ long song ” entitled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy ”, which have been passed on through generations of people in Ordus, thus elucidating the structure and content of the oral tradition. Then a comparison will be made between the oral tradition and the manuscripts in relation to what is described.
As for the content, most of the manuscripts which have been dis-covered in the Ordus region consist of the following two stories. The first is about two horses, which are called “ Yeke ” ( Big ) and “ ” ( Small ) . They were born in a huge herd of 100,000 horses owned by . As they grew as outstanding young horses, they contributed greatly to the success of the great hunt carried out by and his men, in which a hunting ground was en-circled by hundreds of hunters on horseback who chased wild game out into the open. Unfortunately, however, despite the high calibre which both demonstrated, they somehow failed to gain legitimate credit from people for their contribution.
Disappointed and grieved, the two horses left s court, running off to the remote countryside, where they spent a few years without attending to any official duty or assignment. However, their dedication and loyalty to was so genuine that they could never forget their . Eventually they came back to the court again. Deeply pleased with their return, set out for a great hunt again, when everybody generously rewarded the achievement of the horses with sincere words of adoration. To their great pleasure, the two came to be admired by literally everybody in the country, enjoying the fame. This concludes the first story.
Of the two , ( Small ) alone reappears at the end of the second story. The hero in this is a little boy who was taken into bondage as a hostage and forced to work as a shepherd looking after a herd of sheep owned by a wealthy man. Although the rich man possessed as many as l00,000 horses, he was utterly ignorant of the value of horses, incapable of telling a great steed from others of poor breed. There happened to be a fine horse in the herd, which could run extremely fast. In the rich man’s possession, however, the value of this horse was totally wasted, without him being given any chance to show his excelIence. The boy immediately discovered the outstanding strength and nature of this horse and, a few years later, managed to ride off on his back to seek freedom from bondage. Unfortunately, however, the boy was chased and recaptured in the end by a pursuer riding “ Small ”. Tragically enough, “ Small ” ran too fast during the chase and exhausted himself only to die after running the race.The story ends with the remarks that, since that incident, great steeds have come to be born only in the “ Land of the Han ” , and not anywhere else.
It is generally believed that the former half of the epic was constructed during the dynasty of Mongolia- in the 13th century, whereas the latter was created between the14th and 15th centuries. On the other hand, the “long song ” titled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy ” includes only the former half of the epic, which is, in fact, the most moving legend. Whereas those who recite the epic are experts with special skill, the “ long song” can be performed by almost everybody. Currently the number of specialists who can narrate the epic is getting extremely low in Ordus. In this context, it would be fair to say that the “ long song ” titled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy ” was made as a popularisation and simplified version of the authentic epic “ Two Great Steeds of ”.
Key Words: Ordus MongoIs, epics, Urtu-yin , Qoyar ( Two Great Steeds )


Audience Research in Museums in the U.S.
Yoshihiro Miki

Improving audience research methods has long been an issue among museum managers. Results and reports will not improve anything unless an organization makes a full commitment to them. Only staff can make changes, staff who are eager to open a communication channel with visitors and listen to them. The report is a necessary tool, but not the final answer. The process of preparing questionnaires and obtaining analyzable statistics is of prior importance. We must do it correctly and accumulate enough samples to analyze significantly.
Independent exhibit evaluators have played a key role in establishing audience studies in the U.S. these past decades. Some museums have created a full time position for an evaluator. National foundations are encouraging museums to use evaluation in exhibit development. These are the current trends in the U.S. This article will discuss who should be invoIved in the process of evaluation.
How evaluation should be brought into the process of exhibit development is another critical issue I will consider in this article. There are several methods :
1. Front-end analysis : the initial evaluation efforts are undertaken before an exhibit is developed.
2. Formative evaluation : testing carried out during development.
3. Summative evaluation : analysis of the impact and effectiveness of a completed exhibition.
Will visitors understand what an exhibit is about ? Are visitors getting enough new information from us ? Will additional educational programs help visitors focus on issues we want to bring up in the exhibit? These questions can be answered before the exhibit is complete and open to the public.
This article includes two case studies of exhibit evaluation, the “ Teen Tokyo” Exhibit at the Children’s Museum, Boston, and the “Morse Gallery” at Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts. These cases will provide examples of questions, methods, and results ;common issues arise among them,too.
Key Words: Ainu-descended Japanese, convergence, divergence, Locals, Newcomers