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BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 2 2000

Nobayashi, Atsushi
An Ethnoarchaeological Analysis of Paiwan ( Tai-
wan ) Snare Hunting : A Methodological Discussion
of the Interpretation of Faunal Remains
151
Yanai, Tadashi
0rality as a Mode of Thought and Existence among
the Mapuche, Southern Chile
177
Nishi, Yoshio
Trend sin Studies of Tibeto-Burman Languages in
the Himalayan Region : Past and Present
203
Ostapirat, Weera
Kra : The Tai Least-Known Sister Language
235
Strathern, Andrew
Stewart, PamelaJ.
Recent Ethnological Studies from the Highlands of
Papua New Guinea
271


An Ethnoarchaeological Analysis of Paiwan ( Taiwan ) Snare Hunting :
Methodologlcal Discussion of the Interpretation of Faunal Remains
Atsushi Nobayashi

This paper discusses the formation process of archaeologlcal materials derived from hunting activity, Such as that conducted by the Paiwan ( an aboriginal group of Taiwan ) . The mandibles of a wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) , captured by snare hunting, were analysed using a zoo-archaeological technique. Native people were asked to reconstruct their hunting activity, and this was observed. The relation between the hunting activity and the faunal remains is discussed. Archaeological materials can be analysed using various techniques. What is needed is a standard model with which to interpret the results. This paper provides one such ethnoarchaeological model which should prove effective in interpreting similar materials and understanding past human behavior.
Key Words: Ethnoarchaeology, Taiwan, Aborigines, wild boar, ( Sus scrofa ) ,snare, hunting, faunal remains


Orality as a Mode of Thought and Existence among the Mapuche,
Southern Chile
Tadashi Yanai

Among the Mapuche of Southern Chile, the importance of the oral mode of communication is immediately perceptible because of their highly developed system of ceremonial dialogue ( ngütramkan ) .In this article, I survey the anthropological problems implied by Mapuche orality on the basis of ethnographic data gathered near Lake Calafquén in 1990-1992. Concretely, I will show how their ceremonial dialogue intimately unites oral traditions, dreams and rituals, and thus, crossing the central parts of their traditional sociocultural practices, means for many of them the very practice that gives shape to their traditional mode of thought and existence. Another intention of this article, along with these ethnographic discussions, is to characterize their oral mode of thought and existence by contrasting it with Platonism and modern Subjectivity, mostly inspired by E.A.Havelock ‘ s classic Preface to Plato. This second aspect of the article will help to apprehend from an ontological level the actual problem of the existence of contemporary Mapuche-an ethnic minority in the Chilean state, modern and basically Western-most of whom are obliged to fluctuate between two conflicting Cultures.
Key Words: Mapuche, orality, ceremonial dialogue, dream, existence


Trends in Studies of Tibeto-Burman Languages in the Himalayan Region:
Past and Present
Yoshio Nishi

Tibet-Burman languages in the Himalayan region, the so-called ‘ Himalayan languages ’, have been studied since the middle of the last century. However, it was only towards the end of the present century that many trained linguists began field studies of the languages. Thanks to their efforts, a large amount of reliable information has been pub-lished.
From 1985 to 1991 the present author prepared all but a few of the entries on then-known Himalayan languages in the Sanseido Enqy-clqpaedia of Languages (5 vols. ) ( Tokyo : Sanseido ) .I also added an entry on ‘ The Himalayan languages ’ ,summarizing distribution, genetic classification, previous researchers and their work, and linguistic ( typo-logical ) features.
In the present report, I simply list researchers and the languages they worked on up to 1991, and then review important advances that have been made or that are underway in the field of Himalayan languages since 1992. Recent studies on Tibetan dialects in the Himalayan region are also noted.
Key Words: Tibeto-Burman languages, Himalayan languages


Kra:
The Tai Least-Known Sister Languages
Weera Ostapirat*

This paper introduces a group of languages called Kra, which in-cludes the following six languages and their varieties : Gelao, Lachi, Laha, Paha, Buyang and Pubiao. These lesser known languages are spoken in Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou provinces of China, and Ha Giang, Lao Cai and Son La provinces of Vietnam.Linguistic evidence is given to demonstrate that they are related to the Tai languages,and form an independent subgroup within the Kra-Dai ( or Tai-Kadai ) stock. The many varieties of these Kra languages are further divided into sub-branches based on several phonological criteria. Etymologies of the terms Kra and Kra-Dai are simultaneously discussed.

* Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Project, University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.
Visiting Scholar, National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words: Kra, Tai-Kadai, minorlty, languages, phonological reconstruction, Southeast Asia


Recent Ethnological Studies from the Highlands of
Papua New Guinea
Andrew Strathern* and Pamela J.Stewart**

This paper discusses and evaluates certain recent trends in the analysis of ethnographic information from the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. It traces changes in the trends over time in relation to four themes : social structure and process, politics and violence, Christianity and millenarian movements, and studies in aesthetics, bodily symbolism and material culture. Studies of these themes have all been influenced by the growing attention to the importance of the historical approach in anthropology. This is partly because the Highlands have experienced considerable social change since the 1960s. The studies also show the influence of recent theoretical styles of approach to ethnographic data in general, in particular an emphasis on the interpretation of cultural meanings and on the ways in which embodied experience enters into these meanings.

* Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A.
Visiting Scholar, National Museum of Ethnology
* * Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A
Research Visitor, National Museum of Ethnology


Key Words:Papua New Guinea, Melanesia, ethnography, highlands, history