The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
japan site

BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 3 2001

Kishigami, Nobuhiro
Indigenous Trade of Resources in the Northern
Regions of North America : With a Special Focus on
the Fur Trade and its Impacts on Aboriginal Societies
293
Kuwayama, Takami
A Content Analysis of American Textbooks of Cul-tural Anthropology : With Focus on the Changes
Since the Early 1990s
355
Inokuchi, Kinya
Temples and Iconography : The Transformational
Process in the Figurative Expressions at Kuntur Wasi
during the Formative Period in the Central Andes
385
Matsuyama, Toshio
Temples and Iconography : The Transformational
Process in the Figurative Expressions at Kuntur Wasi
during the Formative Period in the Central Andes
433


Indigenous Trade of Resources in the Northern Regions of North America:
With a Special Focus on the Fur Trade and its Impacts on Aboriginal Societies
Nobuhiro Kishigami

The aim of this paper is to provide a general picture of aboriginal trading activities, focusing on the fur trade from the 1500s to the 1870s, across the northern regions of North America, with special attention to the impacts of these activities on native societies. The fur trade in North America was historically developed in relation to commercial demand for furs in Europe and China, as well as to political conflicts among the Great Powers of Europe, especially between the British and the French.Native Americans were articulated into the European capitalist system through their participation in this commerce in furs. Although a majority of indigenous groups were forced to give up or reorganize their historically distinct ways of life during this fur trade period, many Inuit of Canada, as well as the Cree of Quebec have been able to maintain their subsistence activities and some sets of socio-economic relation-ships. This continuance comes from the fact that Inuit and Cree did not become economically dominated by the fur trade, but kept their systems of subsistence and kinship relations. As the responses to fur trading activities by the native peoples of North America were diverse, the general hypothesis that aboriginal involvement in commercial fur active-ties will inevitably result in the destruction of the participating societies does not apply to several cases of northern North America.
Key Words: indigenous people of North America, northern regions, resources, fur trade,social change


A Content Analysis of American Textbooks of Cul-tural Anthropology:
With Focus on the Changes Since the Early 1990s
Takami Kuwayama

By analyzing Changes in textbook descriptions, this paper examinesthe current trends in research and teaching in American anthropology. As a case study, two different editions of Serena Nanda ’ s Cultural anthropology ( 4th and 6th editions ) are compared. A most salient tech-nologlcal change is the increased use of the Internet. In terms of the topics discussed, globalization and gender are the two new areas tow which detailed attention is given. Postmodernism has influenced the new edition ’ s overall orientation, especially in Chapters on epistemology, ethnographic writing, the culture concept, political power, and art. The 0ld edition ’ s evolutionary approach has been retained, however, and theoretical inconsistency is observed in the juxtaposition of the tradi-tional “ grand narratives ” and the postmodern critiques that refute them. Also problematic is the virtual identification of American anthropology with the diverse anthropologies in the rest of the world. Comparison with other textbooks shows that they have the same problems and tendencies. The paper concludes by calling for a more systematic analysis of textbooks as windows to American anthropology as a foreign culture.
Key Words: American anthropology, textbook analysis, change and continuity, postmodernism, evolutionism


Temples and Iconography :
The Transformational Process in the Figurative Expressions at
Kuntur Wasi during the Formative Period in the Central Andes
Kinya Inokuchi

This article examines the iconographical changes observed at the Kuntur Wasi site of the Formative Period in the central Andes. In the Copa Period at Kuntur Wasi, While some figurative expressions show close resemblances to those of the preceding Kuntur Wasi Period in themes and motifs,We can find complex transformations which add new representations, replace a past iconographical element with another, and soon. Not only the imitation or preservation of the achievements of the past, showing a great interest in this, but also the creation of something new at the temple to meet social and cultural changes can be observed in the constructions of ceremonial architecture as well as in the figurative representations. I believe that the persistent work on the temple and its “ renovations ” were indispensable for the existence of temples that function as centers of social integration in the Formative Period.
Key Words: central Andes, Andean Formative Period, Kuntur Wasi, temple, iconography


How the Census Has Counted Indigenous People since Colonization :
A Note on the Australian Case
Toshio Matsuyama

The aim of this short report is to review the Australian Census from the “ General Muster ” of the colonial era to the 1996 Census. Toward this aim, I divide Census history into two periods. The first is from 1790 to 1901, which included a population survey by the colonial government. However, when the Australian Federal Government was established in 1901,the Census still used the population survey system of the colonial era. The second period is from 1911 to 1996Cduring which the “ Census and statistics Act 1905 ” ( Cth ) was current, under which th “ Com-monwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics ” was set up. This does notmean that the first national Census year in Australia was 1905 : it was 191l. I have some comments on how the Census counted indigenous People in each period.
I found that the Australian Census focused on national population size, race components and indigenous population. This trend continues in the contemporary situation of Australian society, but the biological concept of “ Race ” has changed to “ Ethnicity ” in the Census categories, the ideology of the Australian Acts, and in the bureaucracy.
In the last part of this paper I report on the “ Indigenous Enumera-tion Strategy ” for the 1991 and 1996 Censuses, and the “ National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey ” in 1994. These two strategies might cause a new trend in national surveys or Censuses in the country, as a result of which, in the near future, indigenous people will be affected by a new bureaucratic situation regarding national surveys in Australia.

Key Words: Australia, census, Aboriginal people, indigenous people