The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 28 No. 2 2003

Takezawa, Shoichiro
Museums of Ethnology Today: Can Museums of Ethnology
exist in the 21st Century?
173
Saito, Akira
Waging War, Propagating the Faith: The Predatory Expansion
of the Jesuit Missions in South America
223
Fukuoka, Shota
Fumio Koizumi’s Study of Japanese Traditional Musicas
the Starting Point of His Ethnomusicological Research
257
Ma, Jianzhao
Historical Origin & Social Transformation of the Hui
Nationality of Hainan Province: A Historical & Anthropological
Study of Two Hui Nationality Villages of
Yanglan Town, Sanya City
297


Museums of Ethnology Today: Can Museums of Ethnology exist in the 21st Century?
Shoichiro Takezawa

Museums of Ethnology constructed in Western countries in the late 19th century contributed greatly to the establishment of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology as new fields of study. As this era was the peak of Western colonial expansion, the exhibitions of the Museums of Ethnology were colored by the ideology of that time. The main trend of these Museums was to represent the evolution of ethnic groups or “Races” whose summit was reserved for West European societies.
Since the 1930s, theoretical innovation in Anthropology and Ethnology has changed the methods of exhibition in Museums of Ethnology. Cultural Relativism and Functionalism, which attached importance to the cultural contexts of each society, have gained prominence in the exhibitions of Museums of Ethnology. By about 2000, the exhibitions in these Museums have changed drastically in order to respond to criticisms of post-colonialism. The back ground to these changes was the debate over the political and moral issues of representing ‘Others.’
Key Words: Museum of Ethnology, History of Ethnology, Cultural Resources, Colonialism, Ethnocentrism


Waging War, Propagating the Faith: The Predatory Expansion of the Jesuit Missions in South America
Akira Saito

After the native kingdoms of Mexico and the Andes were conquered and the colonial regime was firmly established, the Spanish colonization of America proceeded to the frontier regions such as the North American Southwest, the Amazonia, Paraguay, etc. In these regions the Spaniards found no large-scale political organizations. The native population was fragmented into a large number of small settlements that were constantly at war among themselves. From the 17th century, the religious orders assumed the task of colonizing the frontiers. They saw the native state of warfare as a major obstacle to Christianization and made every effort to put an end to it. As self-professed “Angles of Peace”, the missionaries tried to end war, bring peace and construct a society that accords perfectly with the Christian norms and ideals. This article, however, makes the opposite claim from that of the missionaries, namely that their enterprise turned out to be successful because it was based, not on the negation of war, but on its affirmation. The article seeks to prove that war was the prime mover of the missions’ expansive movement. The missions were in reality organizations of predatory expansion whose raison d’être was to invade, incorporate and expand.
Key Words: Spanish America, mission, frontier, warfare, slavery


Fumio Koizumi’s Study of Japanese Traditional Music
as the Starting Point of His Ethnomusicological Research
Shota Fukuoka

Fumio Koizumi (1927-1983) is known for pioneering ethnomusicology in Japan. His first book Nihon Dento Ongaku no Kenkyu (A Study on Japanese Traditional Music, 1958) is one of his most important research outcomes which throw light on the basic scale structure of Japanese traditional music. This paper aims to examine his approach to Japanese traditional music and argues that it characterizes his ethnomusicological research afterwards.
When Koizumi decided to pursue a career as a musicologist just after the end of the Second World War, many Japanese intellectuals evaluated Japanese traditional music as “feudal”, “irrational”, or “vulgar”. Demonstrating this was a plan to eliminate the department of Japanese traditional music from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music when it was founded by uniting the Tokyo Academy of Music and Tokyo Academy of Arts in 1949. Toyotaka Komiya, then the director of Tokyo Academy of Music said Japanese traditional music could not be a basis for the creation of New Japanese music. Eishi Kikkawa, a researcher of Japanese music, argued that Japanese traditional music had a peculiar value not inferior to Western music and insisted on the establishment of the department. At last, they established the department based on a resolution of the Diet. The discussion about the significance of Japanese traditional music in the process of postwar rehabilitation influenced Koizumi.
Koizumi, who had a liking for Western music from his childhood, began to take an interest in Japanese traditional music after attending lectures given by Kikkawa at Tokyo University. Koizumi chose Japanese folk music including children’s songs as his object of research, to which Kikkawa did not pay much attention. Koizumi thought folk music embodied a fundamental layer of Japanese music, or the basic musicality of the Japanese which underlay many different genres of traditional music. He studied it with a method of comparative musicology. He denied the then common approach which replaced the study of music with that of its literary content and aimed for “objective” recognition of its tone system. This reflected his desire to grasp many different genres as belonging to the same category of “music”. Furthermore, in order to overcome the dichotomy between Western and Japanese music, he intended to take a third perspective by comparing them with other music from around the world.
While the name of comparative musicology was replaced by ethnomusicology in Western Europe and North America during the 1950’s and researchers came to emphasize the study of music in culture, Koizumi kept his basic method of studying music by comparing various kinds of music of the world. On the one hand he assumed Japanese traditional music reflects national characteristics of the Japanese, on the other hand he believed we could understand different kinds of music of the world on a common ground of “music”. This attitude had continued to characterize his ethnomusicological research.
Key Words: Fumio Koizumi, comparative musicology, folk music, ethnomusicology


Historical Origin & Social Transformation of the Hui Nationality
of Hainan Province: A Historical & Anthropological Study of
Two Hui Nationality Villages of Yanglan Town, Sanya City
Ma Jianzhao

Huihui Village and Huixin Village, located in Yanglan Town, Sanya City, Hainan Island in south China, are the two only compact communities of Hui Nationality in Hainan Province. In 2002, there were 1218 households of Hui Nationality and 6400 Hui people lived there. From December 1983 to March 2003, the author visited these two villages 8 times in succession to do field research. In this article, the author will try to analyze the historical origin of the Hui Nationality of Hainan Province and the social transformation of the Hui community of Yanglan Town based on material obtained through fieldwork and other data of history, anthropology, archaeology and linguistics.
There are two main origins of the Hui Nationality of Hainan. One consisted of Arabian merchants who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties. The other consisted of Muslims who immigrated from Zhancheng in Vietnam during the Song and Yuan Dynasties.
During the Tang and Song Dynasties, many Muslim Arabian merchants came to Guangzhou, Quanzhou and other coastal cities of China along “the Silk Road on the Sea” to do business. Hainan was then an important destination for Arabian merchant vessels. During these times, some of those Arabian merchants were forced to stay in Lingshui, Wanning, Ya County (now named Sanya City) and some other coastal regions in the south-east part of Hainan due to typhoons or the attacks of pirates. As time went by, most of the offspring of these Arabian businessmen were assimilated into the local Han, Li and Miao Nationalities. Some other descendants developed into the ancestors of the Hui Nationality of Yanglan Town.
During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, many Muslims from Zhancheng, Vietnam immigrated into Dan County, Ya County, Wanning and some other coastal areas of Hainan in order to avoid the turmoils of typhoons and wars.
The majority of those Muslims living in Dan County and Wanning are assimilated into other local nationalities. The offspring of the Muslims dwelling mainly in Ya County moved to Suosanya Li (now the site of Huixin Village, Yanglan Town, Sanya City) of Ya County about the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. They formed a Hui community with a collective dwelling place, joint economic livelihood, a common language and customs there.
Between the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Suosanya Li was the only compact community of Hui Nationality in Yanglan Town. In 1943, they were forced to move to Huihui Village because the Japanese army planned to construct an airport there. When the war ended in 1945, some of them moved back and named it “Huixin”, and thus these two compact communities of Hui Nationality came into being.
The economy and culture of these communities saw no great changes from the time they settled there to the beginning of the 1980s. But in the late 1980s, the whole community changed greatly along with the urbanization of Sanya City as follows:
1. Reformation of industrial structure
Huihui Village and Huixin Village are both located on the seacoast. Fishing was the traditional means to make a living for generations. Because the boats were small, poorly constructed and not suitable for deep sea fishing, the people couldn’t earn enough to make ends meet and they lived a very miserable life. In 1987, the average annual income per person in these two villages was RMB200 or so, the lowest in Yanglan Town.
After Sanya was elevated from a city of county level to a city of prefecture level in 1987, the Hainan Provincial government put forward the overall goal of “transforming Sanya into a modernized international seacoast tourist city”. This brought about a tide of development of real estate and a blooming of the local tourist industry. The Hui people of Yanglan took advantage of this great opportunity to carry out a range of economic activities during this period. Just in a few years, they formed a new economic pattern with such leading industries as traffic services, tourism, trade and the whole & retail sale of fruit and vegetables. Now these two villages are the richest in Yanglan Town.
2. Transformation of life styles
The increase of income caused the transformation of life styles.
Change of living environment: Low thatched cottages have been replaced by tile-roofed houses and multi-storied buildings.
Improvement of traffic conditions: Motor vehicles have been used widely to substitute for walking or cycling.
Diversification and improvement in quality of daily necessities.
3. Innovation in values and behavioral orientation.
Before the 1980s, the members of the Hui Communities cherished the traditional values of the natural economy: “those living on a mountain live off the mountain, those living near the water live off the water”, just like the inhabitants of other Chinese rural areas. After the “Reformation and Opening to the World” of China in the 1980s, the members of the Hui Nationality began to uphold the different value “every profession is good as long as it can produce a profit and won’t violate the law and discipline.” The transformation of their values did much to help in the improvement of the local economy and society.
Along with the innovation in values and behavioral orientation, the women of Hui Nationality of Yanglan began to leave the home and take part in all sorts of economic activities and are now the main leaders in making fortunes.
4. Continuation and development of traditional cultures.
Hui is a Muslim nationality. The traditional cultures of the Hui Nationality are all deeply influenced by Muslim cultures. In order to carry forward and develop traditional cultures, the Hui people of Yanglan took certain measures as follows:
The construction and reconstruction of mosques is a matter of prime importance in spreading and developing traditional cultures. About 6 mosques were constructed or reconstructed in the 1990s.
Training local religious professionals. More than 10 outstanding youths were sent abroad to study in the Muslim schools of Saudi Arabia, Iran and some other countries and they were appointed as deans, imams or engaged in religious education after graduation.
Popularization of religious knowledge among the youth. Religious education in every mosque.
Abiding by the canons and ceremonies of Islam both in religious activitiesand everyday life.
Key Words: the Hui in Hainan Province, history, urbanization