The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 28 No. 3 2004

Udagawa, Taeko
Can the Piazza substitute for the Politics?: Rethinking
of the outdoor life in Italy
329
Tamori, Masakazu
Transmission of Musical Property and Transformation of
Social Organization in Hindustani Music: A Case Study of the Sarod Gharana
377
Dai, Qingxia
Tian, Jing
Research on an Endangered Language: The Case of
Xianren Tujia
419


Can the Piazza substitute for the Politics?:
Rethinking of the outdoor life in Italy
Taeko Udagawa

These days in Italy, we can see the rapid growth of social movements. Certainly this means that Italian society has a lot of serious and complicated social problems. But my concern in this article is that their protest actions almost always appear out of doors, especially in the piazza, so that we can understand these as a continuation of their ordinary outdoor life. Here I attempt to examine the relationships they create and activate out of doors; not only in the piazza but also in alliances. This will be very helpful to further analysis of social movements.
Most previous studies about Italian outdoor life have had a very functional point of view, but this is not mine. I pay attention to another aspect of the outdoors; outside anyone can gather and meet regardless of his/her own purpose or interest. By examining their behavior in this aspect, we will explore the relationship between ‘others’. This is a very interesting and suggestive relationship, because it contains the principle of commensurability among others. This article tries to show that the concept of this relationship forces us to reconsider Italian society, which has been imaged as disordered for a long time, and also helps in rethinking social theories in general.
Key Words: other, piazza, outdoor life, public, Italy


Transmission of Musical Property and Transformation of Social Organization
in Hindustani Music: A Case Study of the Sarod Gharana
Masakazu Tamori

This paper is an attempt at a social anthropological study that takes into account the relationship between a society/community and its music culture by analyzing a characteristic socio-musical organization, the gharana of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music. The particular point is the correlation between the marriage relationship and the guru-shisya parampara (masterdisciple relationship) in the Sarod Gharana during the formation period of gharanas, and the effect of changes in these social relationships on the transmission of musical property during the post-formation period.
The Sarod is one of the most popular stringed instruments together with the Sitar in Hindustani Classical Music, and there are four major gharanas in the Sarod arena today. The core lineages or families of these gharanas are all Muslim and the representatives of three of the gharanas claim to be the descendants of an army-musician or horse-trader connected with Pathan soldiers coming from Afghanistan during the Mughal period. The founders of each gharana became disciples of musical authorities ie, seniyas originating in the legendary musician Miyan Tansen of the court of Akbar (1542-1605). They learned traditional raga music, and developed particular playing styles on the Sarod. Musical property as the source of stylized playing tradition was carried down from father to son, master to disciple for at least three successive generations before establishing its credentials as a gharana. This paper defines this period from the mid-19th century to independence, falling under the British colonial period, as the formation period of gharanas and the modern period after independence to today as the post-formation period of gharanas.
This paper first explains the content of the secret knowledge of music and musical property, and then deals with the system of its hereditary transfer. Next it examines their origin and the lineage of Sarod gharanas. Finally, it makes clear that musical property was transmitted under a combination of intermarriage and master-disciple relationships during the formation period, but that there is no such correlation to be found during the post-formation period. This transformation of social relationships, corresponding to a change in the larger socio-cultural system in modern India, has affected the transmission of musical property and is responsible for the vicissitudes of gharanas.
Key Words: Indian music, gharana, musical property, master-disciple relationship, marriage relationship


Research on an Endangered Language: The Case of Xianren Tujia
Dai Qingxia Tian Jing

Tujia is an endangered language. ln studying endangered languages we should not only discuss the causes and conditions of endangerment but also study the internal structure of the language. This paper chooses the Xianren Tujia language as an example. Firstly the vitality and decline of Tujia are discussed, and the causes of its being in danger are analyzed. Secondly the main features of Tujia are described. Finally the value for linguistic theory of studying the endangered languages of Xianren is pointed out.
Key Words: Xianren tujia language, endangered language, language vitality, language state