The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.


Yasuhiko Nagano
Negation Particles of Gyarong Language
Nagafuchi, Yasuyuki
Religion and Proliferating Pluralism of Values:
Negotiating the Boundaries of Hinduism in Indonesia
Kanetani, Miwa
Tie-dyed Cloth Production as “Handicraft”: Dyers’
Adaptation to Changes in Demand for Indian Textiles
Sekiguchi, Yoshihiko
Using ’Assimilation’ to Resist the Concept of ‘Dying
Race’: Strategies of Ainu Spokespeople in the 1920s to

Negation Particles of Gyarong Language
Yasuhiko Nagano

Gyarong (rgyal rong in Written Tibetan) is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in the northwestern part of Sichuan Province, China. This language has long attracted the attention of scholars, becouse of the striking similarity of some of its lexical items to those of WT as well as its complicated system of affixation, which could be regarded as reflexes of Proto-TB morphology.
The author has written two monographs on the language, and this small paper is intended to supplement their discussion of the negation system. The negation particles pointed out in this paper have not been described in any previous works on Gyarong.
Key Words: Gyarong, Tibeto-Burman, negation particle

Religion and Proliferating Pluralism of Values:
Negotiating the Boundaries on Hinduism in Indonesia
Yasuyuki Nagafuchi

Since the 1980s, Hinduism in Indonesia has undergone a deterritorialization from Bali. It was realized that there were more Hindus outside Bali than in, and a network connecting Hindus at the national level was organized. Before this, the relationship between Hinduism and Bali had been so unquestioned that the institutionalization of Hinduism in Indonesia was based on it. As the unavoidable signs of deterritorialization became obvious, Hindus outside Bali began to voice a great deal of criticism of the institutionalization of Hinduism based on the Balinese community and “Bali-centrism”. In 2001, this criticism led to a dramatic event, the disruption of the Hindu representative organization Parisada Hindu Dharma in Bali. The first purpose of this essay is to clarify the process of deterritorialization, the content of the criticism, and its influence.
The most visible innovation raised by the deterritorialization is an awareness of the public signficance of Hinduism within which a consciousness of a pluralism of values is intensifying. Now Hindus can talk about new targets such as a realization of civil society and democracy which can be said to be parallel to the democratization movement which emerged around the fall of the Soeharto regime, and also with the expanding discussion on the role of public religion in the academic field. The argument on Hindu democracy can mobilize several agencies. However in reality these agencies have their own individual claims rather than sharing goals. Hinduism is not a closed arena having a common religious foundation, but rather contains several discontinuities. The second purpose here is to trace the values of the now discontinuous Hinduism in the context of national policies, socical organizations, community customs, and individual consciousness.
Key Words: pluralism of values, public religion, Hindu, Bali, Indonesia

Tie-dyed Cloth Production as “Handicraft”: Dyers’ Adaptation
to Changes in Demand for Indian Textiles
Miwa Kanetani

This study focuses on how traditional tie-dyers in Bhuj city, Kutch district, Gujarat state, India are adapting to such current social changes as the global market economy. In particular, I focus on the relation between individual artisans and the nation. I make clear how artisans utilize the handicrafts promotion policy of central and state governments in their strategies for dealing with the present situation, by arbitrarily selecting a manner of representation as “artisans” involved in a “handicraft”.
Key Words: Tie-dyeing, India, representation of handicrafts, handicrafts promotion policy, nation

Using ‘Assimilation’ to Resist the Concept of ‘Dying Race’:
Strategies of Ainu Spokespeople in the 1920s to 1930s
Yoshihiko Sekiguchi

The paper examines how the Ainu themselves accept the imposed image of Ainu as a self-portrait in modern Japan. By doing so, this paper claims that the Ainu speech movement of the 1920s-1930s resisted the discourse of ‘dying race’, by ‘appropriating’ the concept of assimilation to a ruling people. In opposition to this concept, there were two kinds of appropriation which can be distinguished in the Ainu speech movement. Iboshi created a category of Ainu distinguished from Wajin, based on a concept of ‘blood’ outside the hierarchy of ‘unicivilized’/‘civilized’, and conceived assimilation as the subsumption of such ‘Ainu’ under ‘Nihonjin’ as the superordinate category. On the other hand, Hiramura created a unique Ainu identity compatible with being Wajin, and asserted that assimilation meant becoming Wajin. By appropriating the concept of assimilation, Ainu writers opposed the discourse of ‘dying race’, and forged a way to retaine the Ainu identity.

Key Words: assimilation, race civilization, appropriation, identity