The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.
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Saito, Akira
Creation of Indian Republics in Spanish South America
Nobuta, Toshihiro
Islamization Policy toward the Orang Asli in Malaysia
Ono, Rintaro
“Tradition” and “Modernity” in Fishing among the Sama,
Eastern Coast of Borneo, Malaysia

Creation of Indian Republics in Spanish South America
Akira Saito*
This article aims to reconsider the origin of the native communities in the former Spanish colonies in South America. In the first part of the article, I propose the hypothesis that the Indian towns created by the resettlement policy under Spanish colonial rule served as a basic mould for the creation of new societies both in the Andes and in the Amazon. In the late colonial period, the pre-Columbian societies irretrievably disintegrated and what I call “Indian republics” emerged from their ashes. These republics had the basic features of today’s native communities and they can be legitimately considered their direct ancestors. In the second part of the article, I take up the case of the Mojeños, a native people living in the Bolivian lowlands, and attempt to illustrate the historical process of the creation of Indian republics. In the late seventeenth century, the Jesuit missionaries launched evangelical activities among the Mojeños and resettled them into four mission towns. At the beginning, these towns were nothing more than conglomerations of antagonistic ethnic groups. As time passed, however, those living in the same town gradually formed a united body and took on a common identity. I explain how the native societies were transformed under Jesuit rule and how new identities were forged in the mission towns.
* National Museum of Ethnology, Department of Advanced Studies in Anthropology
Key Words: Indian republics, ethnogenesis, resettlement policy, Jesuit missions, Moxos

Islamization Policy toward the Orang Asli in Malaysia
Toshihiro Nobuta*
The Malaysian government has promoted various religious policies to protect Islam since independence in 1957, because Islam is the official religion. Especially since the 1980s, under the influence of Islamic resurgence, the government has strongly promoted various Islamization policies. The state-led Islamization policy toward the Orang Asli began in the early 1980s. As a result of this policy, the Muslim population of the Orang Asli has increased since the 1980s.
This Islamization policy has had various effects on the Orang Asli community. The local Orang Asli community is divided into two groups: Muslims and non-Muslims. In the community, refusal to convert to Islam is regarded as opposition to the government. The aim of this article is to analyze the state-led Islamization policy toward the Orang Asli and examine its various effects on the Orang Asli community.
In this article, I analyze the ethnic boundary between the Orang Asli and the Malays from a historical point of view, focusing on the process of Islamization. I then examine various effects of the Islamization policy on the contemporary Orang Asli community. In conclusion, I discuss two topics; (1) domestication and (2) integration and assimilation, based on that examination.
* National Museum of Ethnology, Center for Research Development
Key Words: Malaysia, Islamization, Malayization, Integration, Assimilation

“Tradition” and “Modernity” in Fishing among the Sama,
Eastern Coast of Borneo, Malaysia
Rintaro Ono
This paper aims to analyze tradition and modernity as reflected in fishing and fishing societies among the modern Sama, who live on the east coast of Sabah in Borneo Island, Malaysia, by comparing two groups: the “Land Sama” and the “Sea Sama”, who have had different histories of immigration and settlement since the 18th century.
Based on a quantitative analysis of the ownership of fishing vessels, engines, and gears, together with practical data on methods, times, catches, and efficiency of each fishing activity, I reveal some aspects of tradition and modernity in Sama fishing.
Concerning modernity, the number of fishermen is decreasing among Land Sama households. The recent diversification of subsistence and higher employment opportunities among the Land Sama, together with a drastic decrease in coastal resources are the possible major factors. While fishing has declined to become an unpopular and minor subsistence in the society as a whole, some households have begun low cost fishing such as hand line fishing. Others who once engaged in fishing are now shifting to other related ventures such as aquaculture of the sea weed agar-agar.
On the other hand, all Sea Sama households still engage in fishing as their major subsistence as they did in the “traditional” age. The major fishing method among the Sea Sama is net fishing, which needs high economic and labor investment, but produces a larger catch than other fishing methods. Net fishing is one of the major “traditional” fishing methods of the Sama. A food consumption survey also revealed that Sea Sama households eat more cassava, which is recognized as a traditional food by the Sama.
My observations also confirmed that the disadvantageous social status of the Sea Sama as illegal immigrants or refugees might result in a high performance in fishing, since it is an activity which such immigrants can easily conduct. Furthermore, based on contracts to produce fish cheaply price in exchange for the acquisition of a guarantee called “jalminan”, a stratified social relation has been formed between the Land Sama fish buyers and the illegal Sea Sama fishermen. However, this social relationship is not similar to the patron-client partnership formed between capital and labor, but is essentially based on a common language, ethnicity, and culture as Sama, and formed at a personal or household level between Land Sama and Sea Sama.
Key Words: Maritime Southeast Aisa, Borneo Island, Sama, fishing activity, tradition, modernity