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国立民族学博物館研究報告 1999 24巻3号

目 次
Nominals of Fatamanue, Seram Maluku:A Subgrouping Argument
in Central Malayo-Polynesian
Osamu Sakiyama
楊 海英




Sakiyama, Osamu
Nominals of Fatamanue, Seram Maluku:A Subgrouping Argument
in Central Malayo-Polynesian
Yang, Haiying
The Story of Two Great Steeds of Činggis Qayan:
Focusing on Ancient Manuscripts and Oral Tradition
Miki, Yoshihiro
Audience Research in Museums in the U.S.

Nominals of Fatamanue, Seram Maluku:
A Subgrouping Argument in Central Malayo-Polynesian
Osamu Sakiyama*
崎 山 理

The present work provides a concise description of the form and formation of nominals in Fatamanue,one of the Central Malayo-Poly -nesian languages of Seram, Maluku Province, Eastern Indonesia. This sketch consists of three major parts. The first,“Phonology, ” points out that Fatamanue has two phonemic stress patterns. The second part deals with “ Alienable/inalienable possession.” The third is devoted to the study of “ Pluralization of nouns,” which can be classified into sixgroups. These features, which are unusual among Western Malayo-Polynesian languages, can be explained by the influence of the substratum (Papuan)language.

ファタマヌエ語はインドネシア・マルク州のセラム島の二村(親村・ハルル,分村・ヤラハタン)で約一千人によって話される少数民族語である。その系統はオーストロネシア語族中部マライ・ポリネシア諸語に属するとされるが,その根拠ほ語彙統計学に基づくもので,音韻的文法的な検討を経たものではない。本論文では,音韻面でこれまで気付かれなかった弁別的アクセント体系をもつことを指摘したうえ,名詞に譲渡可能・不可能を区別するオセアニア諸語(とくにメラネシア語派)の特徴をもつこと,しかし,譲渡可能に対する範疇詞の発達が見られないのは,東側で接するオーストロネシア語族南ハルマへラ ・西ニューギニア諸語(例えば,ヤペン島のセルイ語)と異なること,またファタマヌエ語には名詞(形容詞)に単数・複数の区別が六類あることを明らかにしたのち(この現象ほメラネシア語派のなかでもかなり特異である),複合語の形成法にも論及した。現在,セラム島にはパプア諸語ほ存在しないが,ファタマヌエ語に見られる譲渡可能・不可能,複数表現は,先住したパプア諸語の基層的影響によるものであることを裏づける。
* Department of Cultural Research, National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words:accent,alienable/inalienable, Alune, Austronesian, pluralization

Previous Fatamanue materials
Non-Austronesian substrum
Form and formation of nominals

楊 海 英*
The Story of Two Great Steeds of Činggis Qaγan:
Focusing on Ancient Manuscripts and Oral Tradition
Haiying Yang

叙事詩「チンギス・ハー ンの二頭の駿馬」は,写本と口頭伝承の形で内蒙古自治区西部オルドス地域を中心に伝わっている。叙事詩の写本は古くからその種類が多く,民間に多数存在する。一方,口頭伝承では「聖主の二頭の駿馬」という民歌で広く知られている。従来の研究は叙事詩の物語の分析に重点をおいてきた。そこで本稿は,叙事詩の写本公開を基本的な目的とする。そのうえで,叙事詩の写本と口頭伝承のテキストとの比較検討を試みる。それによって,写本と口頭伝承の関連性を明らかにし,叙事詩の物語の再生産についての仮説をうちたてる。

A Mongolian epic Činggis qaγan-u er-e qoyar jaγal-un tuγuji ( Two Great Steeds of Činggis Qaγan) has been preserved for centuries in the form both of manuscript and oral tradition, mainly in Ordus, which is an autonomous region in Inner Mongolia. There exist many different manuscripts for this epic, which have been collected and reported by researchers through generations. The entire corpus of manuscripts, however, has not yet been identified or elucidated. On the other hand, the oral tradition has taken the form of &ldquo Urtu-yin daγuu ” the title of which is “ Ejen boγda-yin qoγar jayal)” ( Two Great Steeds of the Holy Qaγan ). “ Urtu-yin daγuu ” literally means a “ long song &rdquo . This paper is aimed at publicising two manuscripts, which the author discovered in Ordus, as well as a text that has existed in the Mongolian People’s Republic for many years.
Conventionally, the study of the epic has centred round the analysis of the stories that are described in it. For this reason, there has not been suffcient academic work to date that aims to compare the written epic with the “ long song ”, which is the oral tradition. In this paper, in order to shed light from a new angle,the author aims to identify various forms of the “ long song ” entitled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy Qaγan ”,which have been passed on through generations of people in Ordus, thus elucidating the structure and content of the oral tradition. Then a comparison will be made between the oral tradition and the manuscripts in relation to what is described.
As for the content, most of the manuscripts which have been dis-covered in the Ordus region consist of the following two stories. The first is about two horses, which are called “ Yeke Jaγal ” ( Big Jaγal ) and “ Baγ-a Jaγal ” ( Small Jaγal ) . They were born in a huge herd of 100,000 horses owned by Činggis qaγan. As they grew as outstanding young horses, they contributed greatly to the success of the great hunt carried out by Činggis Qaγan and his men, in which a hunting ground was en-circled by hundreds of hunters on horseback who chased wild game out into the open. Unfortunately, however, despite the high calibre which both Jaγal demonstrated, they somehow failed to gain legitimate credit from people for their contribution.
Disappointed and grieved, the two horses left Činggis Qaγan’s court, running off to the remote countryside, where they spent a few years without attending to any official duty or assignment. However, their dedication and loyalty to Činggis Qaγan was so genuine that they could never forget their Qaγan. Eventually they came back to the court again. Deeply pleased with their return, Činggis Qaγan set out for a great hunt again, when everybody generously rewarded the achievement of the horses with sincere words of adoration. To their great pleasure, the two Jaγal came to be admired by literally everybody in the country, enjoying the fame. This concludes the first story.
Of the two Jaγal, Baγ-a Jaγal ( Small Jaγal ) alone reappears at the end of the second story. The hero in this is a little boy who was taken into bondage as a hostage and forced to work as a shepherd looking after a herd of sheep owned by a wealthy man.Although the rich man possessed as many as l00,000 horses,he was utterly ignorant of the value of horses, incapable of telling a great steed from others of poor breed. There happened to be a fine horse in the herd, which could run extremely fast. In the rich man’s possession, however, the value of this horse was totally wasted, without him being given any chance to show his excelIence. The boy immediately discovered the outstanding strength and nature of this horse and, a few years later, managed to ride off on his back to seek freedom from bondage. Unfortunately, however, the boy was chased and recaptured in the end by a pursuer riding “ Small Jaγal ”. Tragically enough, “ Small Jaγal ” ran too fast during the chase and exhausted himself only to die after running the race.The story ends with the remarks that, since that incident, great steeds have come to be born only in the “ Land of the Han ” , and not anywhere else.
It is generally believed that the former half of the epic was constructed during the dynasty of Mongolia-Qaγan in the 13th century, whereas the latter was created between the14th and 15th centuries. On the other hand, the “long song ” titled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy Qaγan ” includes only the former half of the epic, which is, in fact, the most moving legend. Whereas those who recite the epic are experts with special skill, the “ long song” can be performed by almost everybody. Currently the number of specialists who can narrate the epic is getting extremely low in Ordus. In this context, it would be fair to say that the “ long song ” titled “ Two Great Steeds of the Holy Qaγan ” was made as a popularisation and simplified version of the authentic epic “ Two Great Steeds of Činggis Qaγan ”.
* 静岡大学,国立民族学博物館共同研究員
Key Words:Ordus MongoIs,epics,Urtu-yin daγuu,Qoyar Jaγal ( Two Great Steeds )

1 従来からの写本収集と研究
 1.1 ジャムツァラーノとエルデニトクト
 1.2 モスタールト師の記録
 1.3 現地からの視点-チンギス・ハー
2 写本の所蔵状況
 2.1 民族文化宮本=内モンゴル図書館C
 2.2 内モンゴル図書館の三写本
3 口頭伝承の実態
 3.1 オルドス・モンゴル族の「聖主の二
 3.2 「聖主の二頭の駿馬」の伝承地域
 3.3 叙事詩とその変形の問題
4 写本の訳注
 4.1 公開する写本の来歴
 4.2 00本:Ejen boγda qoyar jaγal-un
      üliger bile~聖主の二頭の駿馬の
 4.3 QB本:Ejen Boγda-yin qoyar j aγal-
      un tuγuji orusiba-聖主の二頭の
 4.4 B写本:内蒙古図書館所蔵モンゴル
      国本 Činggis-un qoyar jaγal-un
      tuγuji orusiba-チンギスの二頭の
5 叙事詩の物語の成立および「長い歌」
 5.1 叙事詩の物語の成立
 5.2 帰る駿馬と帰らぬ駿馬-一叙事詩の
 5.3 叙事詩の物語と「長い歌」との関係
 5.4 駿馬には鞍きずがある-一物語の再

三 木 美 裕*
Audience Research in Museums in the U.S.
Yoshihiro Miki


Improving audience research methods has long been an issue among museum managers. Results and reports will not improve anything unless an organization makes a full commitment to them. Only staff can make changes, staff who are eager to open a communication channel with visitors and listen to them. The report is a necessary tool, but not the final answer. The process of preparing questionnaires and obtaining analyzable statistics is of prior importance. We must do it correctly and accumulate enough samples to analyze significantly.
Independent exhibit evaluators have played a key role in establishing audience studies in the U.S. these past decades. Some museums have created a full time position for an evaluator. National foundations are encouraging museums to use evaluation in exhibit development. These are the current trends in the U.S. This article will discuss who should be invoIved in the process of evaluation.
How evaluation should be brought into the process of exhibit development is another critical issue I will consider in this article. There are several methods :
1. Front-end analysis : the initial evaluation efforts are undertaken before an exhibit is developed.
2. Formative evaluation : testing carried out during development.
3. Summative evaluation : analysis of the impact and effectiveness of a completed exhibition.
Will visitors understand what an exhibit is about ? Are visitors getting enough new information from us ? Will additional educational programs help visitors focus on issues we want to bring up in the exhibit? These questions can be answered before the exhibit is complete and open to the public.
This article includes two case studies of exhibit evaluation, the “ Teen Tokyo” Exhibit at the Children’s Museum, Boston, and the “Morse Gallery” at Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts. These cases will provide examples of questions, methods, and results ;common issues arise among them,too.
* ピーボディー・エセックス・ミュージアム(米国マサチューセッツ州)
Key Words:audience research,evaluation,evaluator

第Ⅰ章 はじめに
 1. その背景にあるもの
 2. 導入の目的と必要性
第Ⅱ章 ミュージアム・エバリュエ一夕ー
 1. 導入の条件
 2. エバリュエ一夕ーの登場
第Ⅲ章 オーディエンス・リサーチの方法論
 1. 継続的な調査と検証
 2. コンセプト・プランへの検証
 3. 制作過程での検証
 4. 総括的な検証
第Ⅳ章 エバリュエ一ションの実践
 1. ピーボディー・エセックス・ミュー
 2. ポストン・チルドレンズ・ミ ュージ
第Ⅴ章 まとめ
 1. 事例研究から学んだこと
 2. 来館者研究の発展性