国立民族学博物館(みんぱく)は、博物館をもった文化人類学・民族学の研究所です。
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国立民族学博物館研究報告 2003 28巻1号

目 次
銅鍛冶カーストの近代と銅製水入れの系統分類
―西ネパールの事例から―
南 真木人
1
儀礼が維持する集団の歴史的記憶
―道光年間における祭祀者ダルハトの訴訟事件が反映する歴史観―
楊  海英
39
An Encounter with Medicine Men in North Cameroon:
Dreams and Experiences of a Psychotherapist
Ryo Inoue
131


BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 28 No. 1 2003

Minami, Makito
Technological and Social Changes among Coppersmith
Castes and Typology of Copper Water Jugs (gāgrī):
A Case Study in Western Nepal
1
Yang, Haiying
Historical Memories of an Ethnic Community Preserved
through a Ritual Tradition: Focusing on a Court Case
Involving “Darqad” during the Dao Guang Era together
with a Historical Analysis
39
Inoue, Ryo
An Encounter with Medicine Men in North Cameroon:
Dreams and Experiences of a Psychotherapist
131




銅鍛冶カーストの近代と銅製水入れの系統分類
――西ネパールの事例から――
南   真 木 人*
Technological and Social Changes among Coppersmith Castes and Typology of Copper Water Jugs ( gāgrī): A Case Study in Western Nepal
Makito Minami

本稿は,銅製水入れの形状,素材,製法,製作者を基準としてその系統分類を行うことにより,銅鍛冶カーストの近代化に対する技術的なあるいは社会的な再編の動向を考察することを目的とする。西ネパール山地のいくつかの事例と国立民族学博物館に所蔵されているネパール製の銅及び黄銅製の水入れをサーダ・タイプとブッタ・タイプに区別し,溶解した銅盤を槌起加工する技能と,既製の銅板を鍛造する技術,銅板の接合を多用する製法を比較した。とくに,溶解した銅盤を槌起して水入れや大鍋を作るカリコテ・ダルワと呼ばれる製法について詳述し,それぞれの技法がどのような職人によって担われ,どのような場所で製作されているのかを報告した。結論として,重厚な水入れが軽く安価な水入れに転換していることとその理由,それに伴う技術・製法の変化と銅鍛冶カーストの社会変化を考察した。

This paper aims to reveal technological and social changes in modernization among coppersmith castes, by classifying various types of copper water jugs (gāgrī ) on the basis of their shapes, materials and production methods as well as their manufacturers. The research is based on the data acquired through fi eld visits to copper vessel workshops in Western Nepal and the collections in the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka. First, I classifi ed the water jugs into type I, plain style (sādā) and type Ⅱ, engraving style (buṭṭā ) by the presence of embossed decoration and the shape of the vessels. Then I examined the differences in materials, which are divided distinctly into thick hand-melted copper disc and thin industry-made copper sheet or disc. In addition, the differences in production methods, which can be seen from the number of parts and the number and location of seams, were examined. Also, differences in the manufacturers, the Parbate Hindu coppersmith caste ( ṭamaṭṭa) or the Newal coppersmith caste (tāmrakār) were considered. Horizontal forge welding of three hammered parts, using thick hand-melted copper disc material (Ⅱ-1 on Table 3) requires the highest technical skill. This method produces heavy and durable water jugs. Today, however, this technique exists only in a few workshops in Western Nepal, while light and cheap water jugs made of many hammered parts with a number of seams, especially using vertical forge welding of thin ready-made copper sheets (Ⅰ-5 and Ⅱ-6) are very popular in markets. Finally I discuss who makes these varieties of water jugs, and why people began to prefer light and cheap water jugs to heavy durable ones. I also discuss how the technology and social-life of the coppersmith castes have been infl uenced and transformed by this change in the taste of consumers.
* 国立民族学博物館民族社会研究部
Key Words: Nepal, coppersmith castes, water jugs, production methods, technological and social changes
キーワード: ネパール,銅鍛冶カースト,水入れ,製法,技術的・社会的変化
1 はじめに
2 職人カーストの技術論的研究
3 三つの銅鍛冶カースト
4 カリコテ・ガーグリ
4.1 カリコテ・ガーグリをめぐる弁別的
名称と評価
4.2 カリコット村とカリコテ・ガーグリ
4.3 周辺地域の銅鍛冶カースト
5 西ネパールの山地帯における水入れの分類
5.1 サーダ・ガーグリの分類
5.2 ブッタ・ガーグリの分類
6 結論



儀礼が維持する集団の歴史的記憶
―道光年間における祭祀者ダルハトの訴訟事件が反映する歴史観―
楊 海 英*
Historical Memories of an Ethnic Community Preserved
through a Ritual Tradition: Focusing on a Court Case Involving “Darqad”
during the Dao Guang Era together with a Historical Analysis
Yang Haiying

「スニト部のギルーン・バートル」(Sönid-ün Gilügün Baɣatur)という人物は,13 世紀のモンゴル・ハーン国時代に大いに活躍した,と年代記はそろって記述する。スニトは13 世紀の『モンゴル秘史』にも見られる有名な部族の名称である。ギルーンは名前で,バートルは「勇士」を意味する爵号である。ギルーン・バートルはまずチンギス・ハーンをまつる八白宮祭祀のなかでその存在が認められる。祭祀者たち(Darqad)にチンギス・ハーンからの恩賜を配る儀礼の場で,ギルーン・バートルの直系子孫を称する者がその祖先の功績に基づいてチンギス・ハーンからの恩賜を拝受する。八白宮祭祀のなかで,ギルーン・バートルはチンギス・ハーンに追随した「4 人のバートル(勇士)」のひとりとして位置づけられている。このような位置づけは17 世紀以降に書かれたモンゴルの年代記の記述とも一致する。
つづいて19 世紀半ば頃の清朝道光年間にギルーン・バートルはもう一度登場する。今度は八白宮の祭祀者ダルハトのひとり,ユムドルジ(Yüdorji)という人物が,自らは13 世紀のギルーン・バートルの直系子孫で,代々八白宮の祭祀者集団内のバートル(勇士)という職掌をつとめてきたと主張する。ユムドルジは税金納入をめぐってオルドスの貴族たちと対立するが,シリンゴル盟のスニト左旗の王公たちの支持をとりつけたため,ことを有利に運ぶ。スニト左旗の王公たちとユムドルジは,13 世紀のスニト部のギルーン・バートルはユムドルジの直接の祖先である,という共通した歴史的認識を有していたことから,ユムドルジを支持したのである。このように,ギルーン・バートルという13 世紀に存在したとされる人物はチンギス・ハーンの八白宮祭祀のなかでその功績がずっと認められてきただけでなく,その子孫を称する人物も広く認知されていた。モンゴルにとって,歴史あるいは歴史上の人物は決して過去のものではなく,現在を活きる存在であることが分かる。

There is a man’s name that appears several times in historic documents of Mongolia compiled at different times over many centuries. The name is Gilügün Baɣatur, and the man was from a tribe called Sönid. Sönid is mentioned in The Secret History of the Mongols, which was written in the 13th century. To be exact, “Gilügün Baɣatur” was, in fact, his name by birth, whereas “Baɣatur” was an acquired title meaning “brave warrior”. Amongst ancient records, the oldest reference to “Gilügün Baɣatur” is found in the description of the traditional ritual of “Eight White Tents”, which is dedicated to Genghis Khan. Part of the ritual is the reconstruction of a historic scene, in which officiating priests called “Darqad” in Mongolian are bestowed with royal gifts by Genghis Khan. Involved with this tradition is a direct descendant of Gilügün Baɣatur, who comes forward to receive the reward from Genghis Khan, thus being honoured on behalf of his ancestors for their devotion and allegiance to his lordship of supremacy. As these proceedings of “Eight White Tents” suggest, Gilügün Baɣatur is defined as one of the leading followers of Genghis Khan, manifesting the values of heroic loyalty, and contributing to his lordship’s historic expedition. As a matter of fact, this great warrior figure concurs with some expressions discovered in Mongolian chronicles from the 17th century onward.
Following these precedents, the famous warrior appears once again in a manuscript written in the middle of the 19th century during the Dao Guang (道光) era of the Qing dynasty. Contained in this document is a statement by a man named Yüdorji, an officiating priest (Darqad), who claims that he is a legitimate direct descendant of Gilügün Baɣatur, the courage of whom was recorded in the 13th century archive, and that his family has been serving in the proceedings of “Eight White Tents” through generations, fulfilling the role of “Baɣatur”. Once Yüdorji was involved in a conflict with local aristocrats (Tayiji) in the Yeke Juu League (Ordos) in relation to an issue of tax payments. As soon as unequivocal support was extended, however, to Yüdorji by feudal lords of the Sönid East Banner in the Silingol League, the situation turned round entirely in his favour. The reason why the royals of the So¨nid East Banner took the side of Yüdorji was that they acknowledged that he was the legitimate descendant of Gilügün Baɣatur from the ethnic group of Sönid during the 13th century. What is worth noting is that the man named Gilügün Baɣatur, who is believed to have existed during the 13th century, has always been honoured over many centuries in the tradition of “Eight White Tents”, the ritual to worship Genghis Khan, for his bravery and dedication. Furthermore, this fact itself emphasizes that historic figures as well as history are not a mere representation of the past, but that they exist in the present, symbolizing the fundamental values of Mongolia.
* 静岡大学人文学部
Key Words: Ordos Mongols, Naiman Čaɣan Ordun, Darqad, Gilügün Baɣatur.
キーワード: オルドス・モンゴル,八白宮,ダルハト,ギルーン・バートル

1 はじめに―本論文の目的
2 問題の所在と従来の研究
 2.1 問題の所在
 2.2 ダルハトの出自に関する従来の研究
3 八白宮祭祀におけるギルーン・バートル
 3.1 民族誌の描写と『金書』の記述
 3.2 軍神祭祀の編陣から見た年代記の記述
 3.3 『金書』の編纂とギルーン・バートル
 3.4 チンギス・ハーンの死とギルーン・
    バートル
4 八白宮の祭祀者とギルーン・バートル
    ―訴訟事件が語る歴史観
 4.1 事件の主要登場人物
 4.2 事件の背景―ダルハトの法的地位の問題
 4.3 事件の経過
    4.3.1 事件当時の郡王旗
    4.3.2 事件の発端
    4.3.3 事件の真相
    4.3.4 ダルハトの地位をめぐる双方の主張
 4.4 玉虫色の決着
5 おわりに―人類学的歴史研究の有効性
 5.1 儀礼が維持する歴史的認識
 5.2 「個人」と歴史の関係
 5.3 「個人」と歴史の現在性
付録―訴訟事件に関する主要文書



An Encounter with
Medicine Men in North Cameroon:
Dreams and Experiences of a Psychotherapist
Ryo Inoue*
呪術医へのイニシエーション過程―臨床心理学的考察―
井 上 亮

The author, a professional psychotherapist, carried out his field research in Adamawa, North Cameroon, among Fulfulde-speaking medicine men to find out how they treat patients, how they contact spirits, what cosmology sustains their beliefs, and what initiation process they go through to become medicine men. He reports on how he entered the world of spirits and returned to reality after experiencing such an initiation. In this process, his various experiences as well as his dreams served him as important guides. He attempted to understand the world of medicine men. Kutin folktales are added for the understanding of the deep psychology of the local people.

本稿は臨床心理学者である著者が北部カメルーン・アダマワ地方のフルフルデ語をはなす呪術医のあいだでおこなった調査の報告の一部である.調査の目的は,呪術医がいかなる方法でその職能を獲得し,どのようにして,患者を治療するのか,その際に精霊とどのような方法で接触するのかなどをしらべることであった.著者はみずから呪術医になるためのイニシエーションをうけ,どのようにして,精霊の世界にはいり,現実世界にもどってきたのかをのべる.この過程で,実際経験とともに,夢が重要な役割をはたしてきた.論文には,クティン族の昔話がついている.これは,この地方の人たちの深層心理と深くかかわっている.
* Ryo Inoue (1947-2002), a psychotherapist, ventured into the Adamawa Highlands in Cameroon, and did research among the Fulfulde-speaking healers. He left the present article. Due to his sudden death we decided to publish it without editing. It describes his extraordinary experiences among the healers. The author consecrated most of his life to this field. This is the revised and enlarged version of an article already published in Japanese.
Key Words: Adamawa, Fulbe, Kutin, healer, psychotherapy
キーワード: アダマワ地方,フルベ族,クティン族,治療師,心理療法

1 My First Dream
2 My First Encounter with a Medicine Man
3 The Medicine Man Who Has Conversations
  with Ginnaaji Every Night
4 Animistic Medicine Men
5 Two Nightmares
6 A Story of a Man Who Became a
  Medicine Man in Seven Days
7 The Bōkā (Shaman)
8 An Ominous Divination by Medicine Men
9 Two Grand Medicine Men Who Received
  Their Callings
10 Dreaming Tests
11 Incidents During the Christmas Vacation
12 A Reunion with the Medicine Man Who
  Had Conversations with Ginnaaji Every Night
13 Decision by Medicine Men (Dugi)
14 An Overview of My Initiations
15 Return to Conventional Reality
Appendix: The Kutin Folktales