国立民族学博物館(みんぱく)は、博物館をもった文化人類学・民族学の研究所です。
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国立民族学博物館研究報告 2006 31巻1号

目 次
独立ガーナの希望と現実:ココアとンクルマ政権,1951-1966 年
高根  務
1
特集:世界の人類学 1


序論
竹沢尚一郎
21
アメリカの人類学から学ぶもの
桑山 敬己
27
フランスの人類学と人類学教育
竹沢尚一郎
57
イギリス「社会」人類学の内実をめぐって
―2002-3 年のケンブリッジを例に―
名和 克郎
87
中国人類学の独自性と可能性
秦  兆雄
117
寄稿要項・執筆要領

155


BULLETIN OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY Vol. 31 No. 1 2006

Takane, Tsutomu
Between Hope and Reality: Cocoa and Nkrumah in
Independent Ghana, 1951-1966
1
Special Section: Anthropology across the World I
Takezawa, Shoichiro
Preface
21
Kuwayama, Takami
Lessons from American Anthropology
27
Takezawa, Shoichiro
Anthropology and Anthropological Education in
France
57
Nawa, Katsuo
On the State of British ‘Social’ Anthropology: in
Cambridge 2002-2003, for example
87
Qin, Zhaoxiong
The Originality and Potential of Chinese Anthropology
117




独立ガーナの希望と現実:
ココアとンクルマ政権,1951-1966年
高根  務*
Between Hope and Reality:
Cocoa and Nkrumah in Independent Ghana, 1951-1966
Tsutomu Takane
本稿では,独立期ガーナのココア部門とンクルマ政権の盛衰との関係を検討し,当時の政治経済状況の問題点を指摘する。注目するのは,政治・経済の両面で脱植民地化を目指した独立期のンクルマ政権が,実際にはその基盤を植民地期の遺産そのものに置いていた事実である。反植民地主義を掲げるンクルマが国家建設を進めるために採用した具体的な方策は,植民地期の遺産であるココアマーケティングボードを中心とした体制を利用し強化することによって,開発のための資金を調達し,また自らの政治基盤を農村部に浸透させることであった。本稿では経済・制度・政治のすべてが複雑に絡まって表出するココア部門とンクルマ政権の関係を明らかにすることにより,現代ガーナの諸問題の根源にある独立期ガーナの政治経済過程を再検討する。

This paper analyzes the relationship between Ghana’s cocoa sector and the Nkrumah regime. It reveals that post-independence Ghana relied heavily on the cocoa sector in both the economic and the political spheres. In contrast to his public anti-colonial campaign, Nkrumah in reality strengthened the economic and political systems associated with the cocoa sector that had been inherited from the colonial era. Through an extensive examination of the political and economic functions of the Cocoa Marketing Board under the Nkrumah regime, this paper argues that the major dilemma of newly independent Ghana was the discrepancy between Nkrumah’s anti-colonial ideology and his politico-economic strategies, which relied heavily on colonial legacies.
* アジア経済研究所
Key Words:Ghana, cocoa, independence, history, economic policy
キーワード:ガーナ,ココア,独立,歴史,経済政策

1 はじめに
2 ガーナのココア部門
 2.1 ココア輸出の重要性
 2.2 マーケティングボードの設立
3 植民地ゴールドコースト期のンクルマ
政権
 3.1 ンクルマ政権の誕生
 3.2 開発の資金源としてのココア
 3.3 ココア流通制度の政治的利用
 3.4 ココアと独立交渉
4 独立ガーナとンクルマ政権
 4.1 政府主導の開発戦略
 4.2 生産者利益の搾取
 4.3 ンクルマへの政治権力集中
 4.4 一党独裁とココア流通独占
5 おわりに



特集:世界の人類学 1

アメリカの人類学から学ぶもの
桑山 敬己*
Lessons from American Anthropology
Takami Kuwayama
This article presents my observations of American anthropology, based on my 11 years of stay in the United States as a foreign student and later as a professor. It provides descriptive accounts of the ways anthropology is actually practiced in America. As such, it may be considered an attempt at an ‘ethnography of anthropology.’
The opening chapter explains my background, both academic and personal, and the reasons why I returned to Japan even after becoming a permanent resident of the United States. The second chapter emphasizes the importance of putting America in a relative perspective, thereby regarding it as representing only one tradition out of many possibilities, despite the country’s superpower status. This viewpoint is applied in the third chapter, which analyzes the development of American anthropology by comparing it with that of Great Britain. The fourth chapter presents my impressions of some of the most influential American anthropologists by way of anecdotes. These illustrate the personal, rather than academic, aspects of American scholarship. The fifth chapter explores social factors in the academic culture of the United States, particularly the oscillation between obedience to authority and defiance thereof. The sixth chapter compares Japanese and American traditions of scholarship, and points out that Japan’s strength lies in its versatility, which compensates for its lack of depth. In the seventh chapter are discussed some of the problems with which non-Western students are faced when studying their own culture with American or British professors. The last chapter defines Japan as peripheral to the ‘academic world system.’ I conclude with a plea to the next generation of Japanese anthropologists that they should improve Japan’s international standing by conducting world-class research.
* 北海道大学大学院文学研究科歴史文化論講座
Key Words:American cultural anthropology, British social anthropology, academic traditions in Japan and the United States, world system of anthropology
キーワード:アメリカ文化人類学,イギリス社会人類学,日米の字問的伝統,人類学の世界システム

1 はじめに
2 超大国アメリカの相対化
3 アメリカ人類学の相対化
4 アメリカ文化人類学の歴史と動向
5 アメリカ的学問の周辺
6 日本的学問の再評価
7 アメリカ留学と日本研究
8 若い日本の人類学者へのメッセージ



フランスの人類学と人類学教育
竹沢 尚一郎*
Anthropology and Anthropological Education in France
Shoichiro Takezawa
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of French anthropological research and education system. The paper has three focal points: to trace a history of French anthropology from 1900 to 1960; to specify the characteristics of French anthropological institutions; and to discuss the problems and possibilities of current French anthropology.
1. The development of French anthropology before World War Ⅱ was realized through the Ethnological Institute of the University of Paris, founded in 1925 by M. Mauss. It trained a number of anthropologists, including Lévi- Strauss, Leiris, Métraux, and Dumont. After World War Ⅱ, these scholars were divided into several schools of French anthropology; the Ethnological School of Griaule; the structural school of anthropology of LLévi-Strauss, who became professor at the Collège de France; and the social and political anthropology of Balandier, who was professor at the University of Paris and founded the African Research Center (CEA) in 1959.
2. After World War Ⅱ, France, began to create some centers of research such as the CEA, and those at the Sorbonne and the Collège de France. Since 1975, EHESS, a new institute for social sciences, has offered possibilities for graduate students to acquire advanced knowledge in all branches of social sciences. With about fifty anthropologists, it provides a solid educational base to students coming from around France and abroad. Each year, it receives over a hundred doctoral students and approves about fifty Ph. D. theses. It operates also as a national center for anthropology in France, which has no national society of anthropologists.
3. French anthropology has been divided, since 1960, between the structural anthropology of Lévi-Strauss and the social anthropology of Balandier. The former has tried to refine methods of analysis, but neglects social and cultural problems. The latter has been oriented to political and historical problems, but its analytical tools remain less sophisticated. Some scholars such as Godelier and Augé have tried to put together these currents in vain, and have no followers among the younger generation of anthropologists. French anthropology seems to be divided into many small compartments between which communication is barred. As long as this compartmentalization remains, France will not be able to breathe new life into world anthropology.
* 国立民族学博物館民族文化研究部
Key Words:: French Anthropology, Anthropological Education, Lévi-Strauss, Balandier
キーワード:フランス人類学,人類学教育,レヴィ= ストロース,バランディエ

序文
1 フランスにおける人類学の歴史
2 フランスの高等教育システム
3 フランスの大学院における人類学教育
の特徴
4 フランス人類学の現状と展望



イギリス「社会」人類学の内実をめぐって
― 2002-3 年のケンブリッジを例に―
名和 克郎*
On the State of British ‘Social’ Anthropology:
in Cambridge 2002-2003, for example
Katsuo Nawa
This article provides an informal and tentative status report on British ‘social’ anthropology today, largely based on my very casual ‘participant observation’ of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cambridge from 2002 to 2003 as a visiting scholar. After brief introductory remarks on the history of British social anthropology (as against American cultural anthropology) and the department, I point out two conspicuous traits of the department I observed. First, it is polycentric in that each of the three professors seems to indicate a different direction concerning the future of the department and social anthropology in general: recording, documentation and ancestor worship; transdisciplinary theoretical sophistication based on the British ‘social’ anthropological tradition; and a regionally oriented advanced study unit composed of anthropologists and scholars of related disciplines. Second, the recent systematisation of the curriculum (possibly due to the ‘audit culture’) and the internationalisation of the department seem to have lessened its particularity as a centre of ‘British’ ‘social’ anthropology. Even the long-established tradition of ‘Senior Seminars’ seems to have been almost imperceptibly eroding. If the British tradition of social anthropology is destined to melt into the larger field of anthropology (the World, European, Anglophone, or otherwise), it might be ancestor worship on the world wide web which serves most to uphold the venerable tradition of Cambridge social anthropology qua ‘social’ anthropology.
* 東京大学東洋文化研究所汎アジア研究部門
Key Words:social anthropology, theories, education, seminar, tradition
キーワード:社会人類学,理論,教育,セミナー,伝統

1 はじめに
2 イギリス社会人類学とケンブリッジ大

3 ケンブリッジ社会人類学の教授達の目
指すもの
4 ケンブリッジ社会人類学における院生
教育
5 おわりに



中国人類学の独自性と可能性
秦 兆雄*
The Originality and Potential of Chinese Anthropology
Qin, Zhaoxiong
Like sociology, ethnology, and folklore studies, anthropology in mainland China was nothing but an importation from western countries and westernized Japanese scholars during the final years of the Qing dynasty and the first years of the Republic of China. In the middle of the formation of the Republic of China and even while facing Japanese invasions, many anthropologists like Fei Xiaotong and Lin Yaohua were very active in their academic efforts. Much fieldwork was done and their ethnographies were published in English and Chinese.
Yet, after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet academic leadership suppressed and negated sociological and anthropological studies in China. Only the ethnology of minorities in remote areas was encouraged. As the result of Chinese-Soviet confrontation, ethnological studies of China were utterly negated by Mao Zedong. The stage of anthropological fieldwork had moved from mainland China to Taiwan and Hong Kong. But, due to the Chinese government’s policy changes in 1978, all of those studies have been revived. Now academic exchanges with associations in western countries are very active. However, anthropology in China as an academic discipline has not yet been established and systematized as a fullfledged science. Now is the time for Chinese anthropologists to realize ‘real Chinese anthropology.’
Though a number of academic papers have been written and introduced in European countries about Chinese anthropological works, some of them, unfortunately, lack an impartial outlook. I would like to look back at the outlook of those Chinese scholars in the past, and to review the problems of anthropology in China.
* 神戸市外国語大学中国学科
Key Words:Chinese anthropology, Soviet model, sinicization, originality, potential
キーワード:中国人類学,ソ連式,中国化,独自性,可能性

1 序文
2 民国時期の社会学・人類学・民族学
3 50 年代の教育体系のソ連化
4 毛沢東時代の大陸と台湾
5 社会学・人類学・民族学の再生と現状
6 展望