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国立民族学博物館研究報告 2009 33巻2号

目 次
八杉 佳穂
崎山 理
後藤 正憲


Vol.33 No.2 2009

Yasugi, Yoshiho
An Essay on the Logo-Syllabic Kanji-Kana Writing System
Sakiyama, Osamu
Austronesian etymologies and semantic change of plant names in Madagascar
Goto, Masanori
Dialogue in Ethnographies: The Irreducible in the Transition of Soviet Ethnography in the Time of Cultural Revolution

八杉 佳穂*
An Essay on the Logo-Syllabic Kanji-Kana Writing System
YASUGI Yoshiho

The Japanese writing system is logo-syllabic, using logographic kanji and syllabic kana. Though the system is said to be complex and difficult, we can now write Japanese freely by means of a word processing program. We input Japanese using letters of the Roman alphabet and it is transformed into the kanji-kana system. Before the development of computers, Japanese language reformists criticised its complex system and suggested replacing it with a Roman alphabetic system. We tend to apply western standards to our systems and deny our valuable culture. However, Japanese writing has survived for more than 1000 years, although kanji and kana reforms have been carried out many times.
The essence of writing is to express the meaningful elements of a language, that is, words. We combine letters to form words when we use an alphabet. Although each component is simple, the combination of letters is just as logographic as kanji. The kanji-kana system does not meet western standards but seems appropriate for the agglutinating Japanese language. Even if it is not the best, we cannot deny our long history of employing it. It is unique and therefore we have a duty to maintain it and pass it down to posterity.
Key Words:logographic, syllabic, writing system, cultural bias, Mesoamerican script

1 はじめに
2 文字の常識
3 アルファベットの無理
4 書きとめる工夫ー漢字考
5 音を表わす文字ー仮名とローマ字考
6 おわりに

崎山 理*
Austronesian etymologies and semantic change of plant names in Madagascar
Osamu Sakiyama
本稿は前稿(崎山1991; 1999)を承け、前稿で見落とした資料およびその後の資料、文献によってマダガスカルにおけるオーストロネシア語族(とくにそのなかのマライ・ポリネシア語派に属する言語)起源の植物名称を追補し、また前稿で記した項目を補訂したものである。前稿以降、刊行された資料として、マダガスカル関係ではBoiteau(1999)、フィリピン関係ではMadulid(2001)が、掲げられた項目と地方語を含む質、量の点で従来の類書のレベルを凌駕する。これらによってDempwolff 1938; Blust 1980-1989; 1988; Verheijen 1984; Wolff 1994が再構成した植物名称の祖語形から変化した語彙として、マダガスカルの形が示されていないものを補い、著者が今回あらたに再構成した祖語形を提示した。マダガスカルの植物名称は他の言語との間で意味のずれが大きく、これまでその語源が解明されていないものが多い。また本稿では西暦四世紀の中国資料『南方草木状』などを参照し、サンスクリット語の借用語にも着目して、マダガスカルの言語が分岐したころのマライ・ポリネシア語派における植物認識を比較言語学的手法により一層精密化することを試みた。

The following set of Austronesian-inherited Madagascar plant names is the third of the sequels supplementing and revising Sakiyama (1991 and 1999). In this contribution, I have added new Madagascar data to Dempwolff (1938), Verheijen (1984), Blust (1980-1989; 1988) and Wolff (1994) and shown some Sanskrit names (S) which are suspected of having been borrowed at the Proto Western Malayo-Polynesian stage. Added items are printed in bold type, and a plus sign (+) before an entry implies a revision to my previous papers.
Semantic change brought about in Madagascar gives in some cases interesting examples; PMP *baliDa/*baliga (by-form)‘weaver's sword, beater-in’ has become valiha ’‘bamboo sword’involving its material ‘Dendrocalamus strictus’(a species of bamboo with long haulms) in Betsimisaraka. The Merina makes use of this type of bamboo in marking the musical instrument called valiha, which Dempwolff ignored for his reconstructed form *balija, presumably because of the great difference in meaning. Another type of change took place on the analogy of plant shapes; PMP *bu(n)tungBarringtonia spp.’(fish-poison tree) transformed into vontona ‘Adansonia digitata’ (digitata baobab) in Sakalava due to the resemblance of their flowers with white petals and brush-like stamens with numerous pink and white filaments. A few cases show plant names turned into common substantives; *kanangaCanangium odoratum’ (ylang-ylang) has come to mean ‘luscious’in the Merina hanana/hananganana, while *pulut‘Urena lobata’(hibiscus burr) naturally changed into folotra/folo-polotra‘low trees, bushes or anything which intercepts the sight’in Merina.
Key Words:Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malagasy, Plant name, Baobab, Semantic change, Sanskrit, Loanword

1 はじめに
2 研究対象と記述上の留意点
3 オーストロネシア系由来の植物名称リスト
4 むすびにかえて

後藤 正憲*
Dialogue in Ethnographies:
The Irreducible in the Transition of SovietEthnography in the Time of Cultural Revolution
Masanori Goto
本論文は、ロシアの文学者ミハイル・バフチンによって対話の理論が展開された1920 年代末から1930 年代にかけての、いわゆる文化革命期にロシアで生じていた民族学の動向を追いながら、バフチンの対話理論が持つ二つの側面について考察する。近年人類学の議論で参照されることの多いバフチンの対話理論には、より深い言語認識を志向する側面と、対象を認識する以前の他者との関係性に配慮する側面が指摘される。ロシア革命後に非ロシア人ネイティヴによって書かれた民族誌に見られる「混成的」な記述は、書き手のネイティヴ民族誌家が「他者性」の感覚を保持し、対象を同一性のもとに捉えることの限界を強く感じ取っていたことから生じている。これに対し、同じ時期にソ連の中央で進められた民族学の変革は、言語や宗教の「混淆」を主題として対象を一元化し、「他者性」の排除を推し進めるものだった。これら全くタイプの異なる民族誌のあり方と、バフチンの二つの側面との間に見出される接点を押さえた上で、互いに相容れないこれら二つの側面の相違について認識を深めることが求められる。

In this paper, I will examine two different aspects of the dialogism of Mikhail Bakhtin by following the historical transition of Soviet ethnography from the end of the 1920s to the 1930s. It is pointed out that there are two distinct aspects to Bakhtin's dialogism: one is concerned with the epistemological pursuit of language, and the other with the sense of otherness. I will demonstrate that the “polyphonic” nature of the ethnographies written by the Chuvash non-Russian native ethnographers at the end of the 1920s was caused by their keen sense of the limitations of reducing objects to oneness and thus “objectifying” their own culture. At the same time, the ethnographies written along the official lines for ethnographic reform under the Soviet regime were found to be those that excluded “otherness” from objects, regardless of their recognition, to a great extent, of the efficacy of the concept of “hybridity”. After examining how these quite distinct types of ethnography are connected with each aspect of Bakhtin's theory, I will suggest that it is indispensable to be aware of the difference between the two irreducible aspects in order to maintain dialogue in ethnographies.
Key Words:ethnography, Soviet Russia, Bakhtin, dialogue, hybridity

1 序論
1.1 人類学とバフチン理論
1.2 バフチンの二つの側面
1.3 議論の設定
2 ネイティヴの民族誌
2.1 言葉の二つの作用
2.2 統合と分散のジレンマ
2.3 同一性の限界
3 ソヴィエト民族学の動向
3.1 「マルクス主義」民族学の形成
3.2 二つの命題と「言語的混淆」
3.3 宗教の「客体化」
4 バフチンの対話理論と「混淆」概念
4.1 マルとバフチン
4.2 「混淆」の普遍化
4.3 両立不能なものの「通約」
5 結論