国立民族学博物館研究報告 2014 38巻4号

目 次
Special Issue
Exhibiting Cultures: Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Europe
Introduction: Exhibiting Cultures from Comparative Perspectives
Akiko Mori
Exhibiting European Cultures in the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka
Akiko Mori
Exhibiting European Cultures in Berlin, Germany
Elisabeth Tietmeyer
Museum Experiments in Living Ethnography: 'At Home in Japan' in London?
Inge Daniels
The Exhibition of Japanese Cultures in the National Museum of Ethnology
Shingo Hidaka
移民の軍務と市民権 ―1997 年以前グルカ兵の英国定住権獲得をめぐる電子版新聞紙上の論争と対立―
『国立民族学博物館研究報告』38 巻 総目次
Vol. 38 No.4 2014

Special Issue
Exhibiting Cultures: Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Europe
Mori, Akiko
Introduction: Exhibiting Cultures from Comparative Perspectives
Mori, Akiko
Exhibiting European Cultures in the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka
Tietmeyer, Elisabeth
Exhibiting European Cultures in Berlin, Germany
Daniels, Inge
Museum Experiments in Living Ethnography: 'At Home in Japan' in London?
Hidaka, Shingo
The Exhibition of Japanese Cultures in the National Museum of Ethnology
Uesugi, Taeko
Military Service and Citizenship of Immigrants: Argument and Confrontation about Pre-1997 Gurkhas' Acquisition of Right of Settlement as Developed in Electronic Newspapers


Special Issue
Exhibiting Cultures:
Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Europe
Introduction: Exhibiting Cultures
from Comparative Perspectives
Akiko Mori*
森   明 子
 This special issue is based on the international symposium 'Exhibiting Cultures: Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Europe', held in March 2013 at the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka. The main objective of this symposium was to explore the complex role of the anthropologist in mediating between those whose cultures are exhibited during the production (and consumption) of ethnographic exhibitions, and museum visitors to the exhibitions. This introduction will summarize some of the overarching themes and reflections that emerged during the symposium's discussions, while in the other four papers in this issue anthropologists discuss four recent ethnographic exhibitions they curated.
*National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words:ethnographic exhibitions, Europe, Japan, everyday life, cultural translation
キーワード :民族誌展示,ヨーロッパ,日本,日常生活,文化の翻訳

1 The subject of this special issue
2 Four exhibitions in comparative view
2.1 Four exhibitions of European and Japanese cultures
2.2 Exhibition frameworks
3 Exhibiting life-worlds
4 Forms of cultural translation
4.1 Researchers' and visitors' techniques
4.2 Thinking beyond the framework of regional cultures
5 Museum settings
6 Exhibiting cultures from comparative perspectives


Exhibiting European Cultures
in the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka
Akiko Mori*
森   明 子
 Starting from the presupposition that an exhibition at an ethnological museum is created from the relationships of three parties (the exhibits, museum visitors, and the researchers), in this paper, I discuss the creation of an exhibition focusing on the role of the researcher as a mediator between the other two cultures. I turn to the Europe exhibition at the National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku), which opened in 2012, to describe the process of planning and creating an exhibition. Through this discussion, I consider the role of the ethnological museum in the contemporary world, and its part in transmitting anthropological knowledge to museum visitors. In the process of doing so, I will highlight the mission of Minpaku as an organization with a dual role; it acts as an ethnological museum and an anthropological research institute. Throughout this discussion, questions related to regional cultures and the nature of cultural encounters emerge anew to be explored. This paper is a revision of an original paper for the symposium 'Exhibiting Cultures: Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Europe'.
*National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words:ethnographic exhibition, Europe, regional culture, everyday life, industrialisation

1 About the museum
2 Ideas and aims behind the exhibition
3 Key points explored in the Europe exhibition: objects, displays, and spaces
4 Accompanying programs
5 Exhibition and anthropological study
5.1 Mission: professionalism and general intelligibility
5.2 Object selection and acquisition
5.3 Display and information intermediary
6 Closing remarks


Exhibiting European Cultures in Berlin, Germany
Elisabeth Tietmeyer*
 The Museum Europäischer Kulturen houses about 280,000 ethnographical objects and testimonies of cultural history from the 18th century to the present, making it one of the largest collections of everyday culture and popular art in Europe.
 Its involvement with exhibitions and collections has been intense. However, the question of how to present European cultures in a permanent exhibition is still a difficult one. After long discussions we intended to show facets of everyday life by applying a thematic approach. The result was the exhibition titled 'Cultural Contacts—Living in Europe', which opened in 2011. Here, a cross-section of the varied museum collections documenting everyday life is presented, with a focus on current discussions in Europe regarding social movements and divisions. On one hand, the mobile behaviour of people within Europe and to Europe, brings about cultural encounters and commonalities, which can lead to the emergence of global cultures. On the other, it raises questions regarding possible consequences for the identity of individuals and groups wishing to counter losses, by drawing boundaries. To address these closely related topics about cultural hybridities and identities, 400 objects from different periods are presented within a European comparison, posing the final question: What is 'European culture'?   
*Museum Europäischer Kulturen—Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Director
Key Words:Europe, ethnology, cultural hybridity, identity

1 About the museum
2 Why a permanent exhibition?
3 Concept of the exhibition 'Cultural Contacts— Living in Europe'
3.1 Idea
3.2 Structure and objects
3.3 Content
4 Accompanying programmes
5 Approaches and reflections

Museum Experiments in Living Ethnography:
'At Home in Japan' in London?
Inge Daniels*
 Through an analysis of the exhibition 'At Home in Japan—beyond the minimal house', held at the Geffrye Museum in London from March until August 2011, this paper will re-evaluate the potential of the multi-sensory, spatial context of the museum to question deeply embedded cultural stereotypes. 'At Home in Japan', based on Daniels' ethnography inside contemporary urban Japanese homes (Daniels 2010), juxtaposed the widespread, ahistorical myth of the Japanese house, characterised by empty spaces devoid of people and things, with the complexities of everyday life behind closed doors. The exhibition brought together domestic objects, photographs, written commentary and sounds to produce an immersive environment that encouraged visitors' active participation. The objective of this exhibition was to test whether these kinds of multi-sensory, interactive experiences might stimulate a more balanced understanding of everyday life across cultures.
 本稿は,文化理解に埋め込まれたステレオタイプを問いなおすために,ロンドンのジェフリー博物館において2011年3月から8月まで開催された展示「日本の家のくつろぎの空間―最小サイズの家のかなた」の分析を通して,博物館の多感覚的,空間的コンテクストがもつ可能性を,評価/再評価しようとするものである。「日本の家のくつろぎの空間」は,現代日本の都市家庭の内側についてのダニエルズが著した民族誌にもとづいており(Daniels 2010),人もモノもない空間として普及している非歴史的な日本の家についての神話と,ドアのむこうの実際の日常生活を,対比的に示した。この展示は,来館者が積極的に関わるように促す没入状況を作り出すために,日常品の使用と,写真,来館者の残したコメント,音を組み合わせて使用した。その目的は,博物館はこの種の多感覚的な相互行為的な経験をつくり出すことによって,日常生活について文化を超えて均整のとれた理解を導くことができるか,示すことだった。
*Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford
Key Words:ethnographic exhibitions, Japanese homes, everyday life, performative knowledge, photographs

1 Introduction: Experiments in Living Ethnography
2 Underpinning Research: The Myth of the Japanese House
3 The Experiment: The Museum as a Space of Encounter?
4 Photography and Museum Design
5 An Ethnography of Visitors

The Exhibition of Japanese Cultures in the National
Museum of Ethnology
Shingo Hidaka*
日 髙 真 吾
 The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) was founded in 1974, and opened its doors in November 1977 as a centre of research for cultural anthropology and ethnology, providing academic communities and the general public with information and the results of research on the peoples, societies, and cultures of the world, to deepen awareness and understanding of ethnological and cultural matters. Given its history as a research institute, the researchers involved with exhibitions at Minpaku are extremely conscious of the integral nature of research and display.
 The Culture of Japan Gallery is part of the Regional Exhibitions at Minpaku. Located at the end of the Regional Exhibitions, the Culture of Japan Gallery takes up the largest display space. The first exhibition in the gallery was a two-year project spanning FY 1978 and 1979. After the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake necessitated a partial renovation, the exhibition was renewed and updated for FY 2012 and 2013.
 In this paper, I will address the renewal of the exhibition, comparing new and conventional approaches in an analysis of the principles underlying the Culture of Japan exhibition at Minpaku.
 Minpakuの地域展示(Regional Exhibitions)の一角をなす日本の文化展示場(Culture of Japan)は,地域展示場の最後に位置し,最大の展示場面積である。本展示場は,Minpaku開館後,1978年度と1979年度の2年度にわたって最初の展示が作られ,1995年の阪神・淡路大震災で一部展示の改修を余儀なくされた後,2012年度,2013年度に新しく展示が再編される。
*National Museum of Ethnology
Key Words:museum exhibit, culture of Japan Gallery, regional exhibitions, Japanese cultures and lifestyle, production of the exhibition

1 Outline of the former Culture of Japan Exhibition (the 1st Culture of Japan Exhibition)
2 The newly redesigned Culture of Japan Gallery (2nd Culture of Japan Exhibition)
2.1 Considerations of the exhibition production
2.2 Outline of the 'Rituals, Festivals, and Performing Arts' section
2.3 Outline of the 'Everyday Life' section
2.4 The positioning of the 'Culture of Japan exhibition' as a permanent exhibition of Minpaku

―1997 年以前グルカ兵の英国定住権獲得をめぐる
上 杉 妙 子*
Military Service and Citizenship of Immigrants:
Argument and Confrontation about Pre-1997 Gurkhas' Acquisition of Right of
Settlement as Developed in Electronic Newspapers
Taeko Uesugi
 本稿は,2000 年代後半の西欧社会における移民の市民権と軍務との結びつきについて明らかにするために,香港返還より前に英国陸軍を退役したネパール人兵士(1997 年以前グルカ兵)による英国定住権獲得の事例を取り上げ,その要因と意義について検討した。材料として用いた電子版新聞紙上では,グルカ兵についての国民的記憶が喚起され,英国社会の構成と道徳性,財政支出や移民政策の是非が論じられた。また,総選挙を約1 年以内に控えていたことから政局とも連動し,政治家たちは論争を利用して労働党政府を攻撃した。その結果,政府は定住権を認めざるを得なくなった。軍務と市民権の結びつきを規定するのは,武力衝突に至るような対外的な安全保障リスクや徴兵制の有無ばかりではない。本稿は,国内の政治的状況や移民の大量流入に対する市民の懸念,市民権概念の変容といった対内的な要因についても注目する必要があると指摘した。
 This paper examines the factors for the acquisition of right of settlement in the United Kingdom by Gurkha soldiers who retired before the handover of Hong Kong (known as pre-1997 Gurkhas) and its significance, in order to clarify the link between citizenship and military service in a Western society in the latter half of the 2000s. The arguments in electronic newspapers invoked the national memory of the Gurkhas, and examined the constitution and morality of British society, financial policy, immigration policy, and soon. Furthermore, the arguments were interlocked with the political situation at the time, in which a general election was expected within about a year, so some politicians of opposition parties used the Gurkha issue as ammunition to attack the government. Finally, the government was obliged to bestow the right to settle in the UK on pre-1997 Gurkhas. It is not only external security risks, possibly leading to armed conflict, or a conscription system that determine the link between military service and citizenship. I have pointed out that we also pay attention to internal factors such as the domestic political situation, changes in the citizenship concept and citizens' concern about a mass inflow of immigrants.
Key Words:citizenship, military service, Gurkha, United Kingdom, inclusion and exclusion

1 序論
1.1 本稿の目的
1.2 先行研究の検討
1.3 本稿の課題
1.4 方法
1.5 本稿の構成
2 1997 年以前グルカ兵による定住権獲得のいきさつ
2.1 1947 年以降の英国陸軍のグルカ兵雇用政策
2.2 1997 年以前グルカ兵の定住権獲得の経過
3 政策的背景
3.1 2008–2009 年当時の移民政策
3.2 軍事への影響
3.3 対ネパール・インド関係
4 電子版新聞紙上の論争の内容と展開
4.1 グルカ兵の英国に対する貢献と英国社会の負債
4.2 退役グルカ兵の困窮
4.3 英国社会の道徳性
4.4 移民政策に対する批判
4.5 財政的負担についての議論
4.6 他の財政支出についての批判
4.7 ブラウン首相の指導力に対する批判
4.8 政策決定過程についての議論
4.9 議論されなかったこと
5 対立
5.1 政府とその他の勢力の対立
5.2 党派的対立
5.3 論争の対立関係と左派/右派の分割
6 考察
6.1 なぜ1997 年以前グルカ兵に定住権が認められたのか
6.2 1997 年以前グルカ兵定住権論争の意義
7 結論