- 開催日時：2018年10月13日（土）13:00 - 17:00
- 開催場所：国立民族学博物館 第1演習室（本館4階）
- 対 象：研究者
- 13:00 - 13:30
- 13:30 - 15:00
- 15:00 - 16:00
- 16:00 - 17:00
Aftermath of Musician Caste Crystallization in the Census and Nautch-related Issues of British India: Focusing on Mīrāsī and Tawā’if
This presentation describes an anthropological and socio-historical study that examines how hereditary musicians in modern India have been building their socio-musical identity. The study specifically examines how the caste-based census and nautch-related issues, i.e. looking down on hereditary musicians who accompanied nautch/dancing girls, in British-ruled India have affected the identification of musicians today.
The particular point is the connection between the oral narratives of musicians about “themselves” and “others”, and the relevant history. From the twentieth century, Hindustani musicians in larger cities started talking about “themselves” as Seniyā and “others” as Mīrāsī in some cases. Seniyās were the descendants of Miyan Tansen in the court of Akbar (reign 1556–1605), the third Mughal Emperor. In contrast, the current definition of Mīrāsi by Ashok Ranade in Keywords and Concepts Hindustani Classical Music (1990) is the following: One who accompanies courtesans or ‘nautch’ girls on string or membrane-covered instruments is described as mirasi. Today the term has come to mean an inferior musician accompanying a vocalist.
Finding any mention of the category of Mīrāsī as a court musician in the materials of the Mughal period is difficult. This presentation specifically examines the Mīrāsī and Tawā’if. Mīrāsīs were regarded as crystallized in the caste-based census of British-ruled India and the process by which they came to be generally regarded as accompanists and assistants of Tawā’if as dancing girls, i.e., prostitutes.
The author undertook clarification of how the caste-based census and the aftermath of nautch-related issues have affected the reflexive identification of musicians today, and why the Hindustani musicians are striving to eliminate any connection with Mīrāsī and Tawā’if as a caste.
Kanjar image as entertainers in a prostitution area, Panjab, PAKISTAN
This presentation puts forward information about the Kanjars, who are hereditarily prostitutes as well as singing and dancing entertainers. It also outlines their relation with Mirasi, who are masters and teachers of Indian classical music to Kanjars, and Kalawant, who are recognized as elite male classical musicians. Subsequently, some Kanjar-related scenes are shown from a Pakistani Urdu film “BOL (Speak Out)” directed by Shoaib Mansoor (2011).
“Panjab Seikatsu Bunkashi,” a translation into Japanese from the Urdu book “Yadgari-Chishti” written by Nur Ahmad Chishti in 1859 originally, includes a description of Kanjar as the name of Kanchan. “The Kanchan” called Kanjar in Panjabi language are a qoum ‘caste’, members of which have prostitution as their occupation. They have a category called Nauchi, who are bought and brought up in the caste. Female Kanjar, called Kanchani, are keen on dressing themselves up constantly. They would not be so happy to give birth to a boy in their home, but would welcome the birth of a girl because they would then be able to let their daughter engage in prostitution as well. They strictly avoid letting the wife of a son, Bahu, practice prostitution. If their own daughter gives birth to a boy, the boy would be called Kanjar. However, when their Nauchi gives birth to a boy, he would be called Ghar Janm: home born. Kanjar spend large amounts of money on weddings.