History of anthropology, nationalism, intelligence
Japanese anthropology was established through introduction of Western theories and transplantation of them into Japan as knowledge. However, Japanese anthropology has been deployed and developed under political conditions in and outside Japan surrounding anthropology, such as its application to colony management, the sudden rise of nationalism and the upsurge of racial consciousness, and intelligent works of the battlefield, similarly to the West. This study was conducted to elucidate the social contribution of anthropology by restructuring history covering adjacent domains in the view based on social conditions surrounding anthropology and folklore, as well as expounding acceptance of scholarly activities and theories. This study was conducted specifically as basic research in which anthropology and folklore, established as knowledge, are understood in a historical context, by comparison and contrast of anthropology and folklore in the West and Japan during the interwar period of the 1920s–40s and by exploration of the root of the effect of the Western theories on Japan.