Tourism , De-tourization , Globalization
The objective of this research project is to facilitate a new theoretical turning point for ever-diversifying and ever-expanding tourism phenomena from a cultural anthropology approach.
Since the 1980s, cultural anthropology has looked at the phenomenon of tourism. However, while researchers have achieved new theoretical developments in the sociology of tourism by linking tourism to John Urry and Scott Lash’s theories on globalization, existing state of tourism has not been adequately understood in anthropology, and tourism research in the field has been stagnant since the 2000s.
Today the forms of tourism are even more diverse: “dark tourism” that conveys the history of tragedies such as a war to the next generation, “migration tourism” that encourages visitors to think about migration, “eco-tourism” that educates visitors about the co-existence of nature and humans, “contents tourism” that facilitates interaction between works such as anime and their fans, and “regional culture tourism” that revives communities that have fallen into decline. Each of these had previously been completely separate cultural phenomena, but are gradually becoming included into the context of “tourism.”
On the other hand, phenomena that had previously been discussed within the context of tourism have come under restrictions and shifted away from that context due to factors such as environmental degradation and increasing conflicts between local residents and tourists.
This research project will define such processes under the concepts of “tourization” and “de-tourization,” and examine them in depth. Specifically, we aim to: (1) empirically consider in detail how cases within and outside Japan have been included in or excluded from the context of “tourism” and (2) build a new perspective on the basis of anthropology as a whole while taking a critical look at arguments on globalization.