The current state of food and foodways is extremely complex and has been exposed to dramatic changes, but one key historical factor that has led to this state is war and imperialism. Food and foodways are the foundation of a nation’s strength in the first place. Therefore, war and imperialism can become key moments that move and transform food and foodways not only within a country, but also across national and regional borders. Focusing mainly on changes in food and foodways from the end of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century—the height of imperialist nations’ expansion—this inter-university research project will define how war and imperialism have transformed the food and foodways of nations and regions and how they are affecting current food and foodways, by primarily examining cases in Europe and Asia. And it is not only the national level, but a wide range of levels, standpoints, and agents that have been involved in such changes, including citizens (also taking into account class, gender, and other factors), military, experts, markets (including black markets), and media. Therefore, by conducting a comparative analysis of individual cases while taking the above factors into account, we will offer provisional arguments and discussion points about the mechanisms of transformation of food and foodways with the aim of contributing to rethinking the state of food and foodways in contemporary society in a more general sense.